DW AngolaThird Year Interim Report: August 2012 to July 2013

Third Year Interim Report: August 2012 to July 2013


In its third year the program has achieved some significant successes and is generally on schedule, and on some milestones ahead of schedule. We have a very active Partner Organization base that meets on a very regular basis, to address the issues faces by the urban poor in Luanda. We and our partners are however concerned with the continued postponement of the municipal elections.


Executive Summary

Click here for an explanation of abbreviations used in this report. We use a few ‘Angolan’ phrases, such as ‘bairro’, ‘comuna’, etc. They are also explained in this annex.
As we explained in last years’ report: The government has reaffirmed its intentions to move toward the creation of a new level of Municipal Governance (at least in Luanda) by restructuring administrative divisions of the city, arguing that this will facilitate elected “autarquias”. (Autarquis is the term used in Angola to describe the municipal level institutions that are being planned as part of the state's decentralization strategy. Autarquis will be a new autonomous level of local governance. They are likely to be composed of elected municipal or district councils and elected mayors. Autarquias are likely to replace the nominated CACs and mayors are likely to replace appointed administrators. The Autarquia will have its own charter or legal mandate and regulations and will take over the primary role of financial and budgeting units.)

In the third year of the program:

  • The situation on the development of autarquias has hardly changed in the year. The Minister of Territorial Administration (MAT) has reaffirmed the target date of 2015 but made this conditional to the completion of the census by then. DW's former Program Director, now the national director of MAT, has been seconded/recruited by the Minister to take charge of the Directorate for Local Government. Probably the most significant political issue is that the opposition parties in the Parliament have produced proposals for the autarquias. MAT has arranged a series of international consultations on local governance models and invited other countries to share their best-practice models.
  • The MOGECA book was published and printed. This is the result of DW for more than 30 years working in the water sector, together with government structures. The book is a manual on Community Water Management and has become the Angolan National Policy on sustainable water management. Each book comes with a set of cards to be used at training to explain the target groups how to reach sustainable water and waste management in their communities.
  • Some significant improvements to water coverage have resulted from the project’s partnership with the Luanda Water Company EPAL and the National Water & Sanitation Directorate (DNA) in urban bairros.  DNA is the former DNAAS.

  • DW has expanded its support for water and sanitation committees to 258.

  • Despite progress on the policy development, the project’s participatory monitoring of urban indicators demonstrates that while the service “coverage” has improved the poor’s “access” to services has remains below the targets promised by Government through their ‘Water for All’ and ‘One Million Houses’ programs.
  • The program has undertaken the first three Online Municipal Forums, for Cazenga, Viana and Cacuaco, using a social media-linked platform where the general public can find data on core poverty indicators and that serves as a public debating space for the voices of the urban citizens and the voices of the local administrations.
  • Urban civil society has become again more articulate and effective in making their voices heard, through municipal forums, community and social media channels and demands for more accountability on how public budgets are developed and spent.
  • Frustrated youth are increasingly making their voices heard through street demonstrations and direct action
  • The program continues to engage with Luanda’s Special Office for Urban Upgrading to promote good international practice and encourage more participatory approaches to planning. Consultation with civil society through the Municipal Forums has been one of the key outcomes.

Delays by the government to plan the all important local elections have somewhat slowed the decentralization process and is hampering the scope for this project to fully achieve Objective 2: to promote the use of community monitored poverty indicators as a tool for the preparation of annual municipal plans and budgets. The actual production of development plans by municipalities through participatory processes. 

The level of independence that municipal administrations presently have (especially with respect to the management of funds and control over formulation of major municipal development plans) is not expected to change until after elections are held. Elections have been pushed back until 2014 or 2015  and we are hopeful that  the government will call the election before the end of this project. The elections were originally planned for late 2012 or early 2013 but it does not seem the government is in great haste as the moment. As a result it is unlikely that any municipality targeted by this project will be in a position to develop a major development plan during the remaining period of this project. Presently the current arrangement is that smaller budget and annual plans are being produced and presented to the central government for approval and allocation of funds. Significant progress has been made through the project to ensure that these annual plans and budgetary requests are done in consultation with civil society and incorporate their recommendations.

In general we will continue implementing the program as planned. 

For an explanation of the abbreviations used, see annex abbreviations used. We use a few ‘Angolan’ phrases, such as ‘bairro’, ‘comuna’, etc. They are also explained in this annex.

Progress and Results - Introduction

Below you will find the Project Progress and Results for the 3rd year of the program. The Voices of Citizens for Urban Change program focused on 4 municipalities in the Luanda Province:

  • Luanda (covering the former municipalities of Rangel, Sambizanga and Kilamba Kiaxi)
  • Cazenga
  • Cacuaco
  • Viana

MAT, the Ministry of Territory and Administration, recommended DW to continue producing municipal diagnosis so as to help the (new) administrators to produce consistent municipal plans. DW continues to (co-)produce maps and Municipal Profiles, and adapting them to the new boundaries.

The main output in this respect in the 3rd year of the program is the production of the Online Cazenga Forum and the preparation for the launching of Forums for Viana and Cacuaco. This is an online municipal atlas, showing the current social and poverty indicators. It includes maps and statistics, from different sources, but mainly based on the questionnaires DW does every year, to feed into the baseline study and the progress reports per year.

The new district divisions and changes in boundaries had not yet been formalized through legal
regulations and laws (they have not yet been published in the Diario da Republica) meaning that they do not yet carry the weight of Law. They are just declared by MAT. There has been no formal indication of how and who should be in charge of the new districts. The former municipal administrators are still working as interim administrators.
Despite this new administrative division DW’s programs in Luanda will not be affected. The municipalities of Sambizanga and Kilamba Kiaxi will be districts which will also remain administrative entities. The active citizenship organizations that DW has been supporting in those places will continue engaging with the local administrations to promote participatory governance.

Luanda new municipal borders

Luanda map with bairros

Progress and Results – The Angolan Context

Evolving Urban Governance Environment in Angola

The cooperation between Civil Society and the local government structures continues to grow stronger and more accepted by all stakeholders.

The reporting period corresponds to a period where several Presidential commissions to combat poverty take a strong intervention role in local development. The president started to do field trips to the less fortunate parts of the city. The “anti-poverty commission” appropriated much of the language of civil society organizations (particularly the platforms of our current project partners in the “Voices of Citizens for Urban Change”).  The influence of the project on the setting the agenda for urban poverty reduction is evident.

For more background on Civil Society development in Angola Fernando Pacheco of ADRA, one of the other leading NGO practitioners in Angola writes of the contribution of Angolan CSOs to the  democratization process. His article illustrates the roles and interdependencies between the ruling and administrative structures, the decentralization process and the role of the Civil Society and (I)NGOs. He takes note of the new democratic spaces – consultation forums and councils to voice public opinion – are emerging to influence this process.

See annex Fernando Pacheco ADRA on Angolan CS and role in the decentralization process (Fernando Pacheco's paper was published on on the Web on 27 May 2011. It originally appeared as a chapter in the book edited by Nuno Vidal & Patrick Chabal (eds) Southern Africa. Civil Society, Politics and donor Strategies (Brussels & Luanda: Media XXI & Firmamento with Angolan Catholic University, University of Coimbra & Wageningen University, 2009), pp.123-134.)

A critique of the Angolan Government’s sustained war against chaotic urbanization is presented in the following Blog: See annex 201308 Poverty Matters Blog: Angola's poor people hit hard by urbanisation crackdown in Luanda (This blog is also supported by BMGF, not via DW)

And a Human Rights Watch report on forced evictions: See annex 201302 HRW Angola_ Scores Detained, Convicted after Forced Evictions in Cacuaco

As urban requalification programs are implemented in Luanda more and more eviction and resettlements that happen in a more organized way, more basic services reaching deeper and deeper in the musseques. Urban upgrading is proceeding relatively slowly but with he creation of the Special Office for Requalification of Sambizanga, Cazenga and Rangel the process is proceeding ithin a planning framework. Our program opens democratic spaces, the civil society is getting stronger and more vocal in their complaints and plans for improvement, and the Government authorities are listening more and more. The president has started to pay surprise visits to the musseques, with some interesting results. More on this later in the report.

The national elections in Angola

The elections have taken place in the first month of the timeframe covered by this report, on the 31st of August 2012. In last years´ report we gave already significant attention to the elections as they happened before the report was due.

We held several Round Table meetings to assess the influence of the elections and search for strategic alliances.
See annex 20120823 Round Table on Elections 60 pax
Some background information:
See annex 201208 HRW on the Angolan Elections 2012

Forced evictions and weak compensation of demolitions in poor neighborhoods remain a serious problem very recently in Luanda. In the engagement and participation spaces that DW is promoting with the poverty network at the municipal and provincial levels, community residents have urged the government to carry out the upgrading in a more participatory manner and to negotiate with occupants. After the outcome of the 2012 elections in which the ruling party’s victory in Luanda was less than 56% of voters. There is a growing citizen conscience of their rights and entitlements. Attempts of forced evictions and demolitions in the neighborhood of Samba in the District of Maianga resulted in the people protesting in the streets for consecutive days and the government pledged to negotiate with them. This was possible due to the raising of awareness and sensitization of poverty network members living in Maianga who held various meetings with residents from Samba when it was known that the neighborhood was due to be demolished.

The local elections that were initially planned for 2013 are now scheduled for 2015 (by September) but we are not confident about this date. The change is due to the plan to conduct a national census between July and August 2013, but the census has also been delayed to probably the beginning of 2014. The date of the municipal elections has again been postponed, and no formal date has been announced at the time of writing. The delay in holding local elections will have implications on how long it takes for municipalities to be financially more autonomous. Municipal administrations continue to depend on budgetary decisions of the central government thereby affecting how locally prioritized projects are funded.

The government has just carried out seven national conferences on international models for local governance. Comparative discussions were presented of experiences of countries such as Brazil, Mozambique, South Africa, Spain, Uganda and Cape Verde. The government wanted to extract lessons and best practices that can contribute to the Angolan decentralization process.  DW has advocated for a “constituency-based” rather that a “party-list” form of local elections that would encourage legitimate community leaders to present themselves as candidates for municipal councils. One of the immediate outcomes of these conferences is there are some basic pre-requirements that need to be put in place so that Angola can implement effective local governments. One of these requirements is to conclude the national census. Nevertheless, the government has pledged to carry out the local elections by the end of 2015, as the next parliament and presidential elections will take place in 2017.   

Other important background documents

Other interesting new and latest background information and documents on the Angolan context:
Angola and especially Luanda is again the most expensive places to live and work in the world.

See annex 20130723 MERCER Cost of Living Survey 2013
See annex 20130724 Angolan Capital Overtakes Tokyo as Most Costly City for Expats - Bloomberg

On the general developments in Angola, the economy, the state of the country at large:

See annex 2012 DW Thematic Scan Governance & Decentralization
See annex 2013 Angolan Ministry of Water Sectoral Report
See annex 2013 Doing Business in Angola Ranking
See annex Angola Economic Update - World Bank - June 2013
See annex 20130215 HRW submission on Angola to UN Human Rights Committee
See annex WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2013-14
See annex Urban Landmark DW Angola informal land tenure case study
See annex 2013 Angola ranks 26th on WATSAN in Africa

The main issue, coming from international research institutes, is the lack of transparency in Angola. And the low impact the ongoing massive economic growth is having on the lives of the majority of the civilians.

See also their 2013 International Human Development Indicators – UNDP

Transparency International 2012, See also their 2012 CPI brochure

Progress and Results - the Angolan National Budget

As explained last year, but important to repeat here: One of the early steps in 2007 in moving towards decentralization was the empowerment of Municipal Administrations by making them local “budget units”. This step was called “deconcentration” rather than “decentralization”. The Law 07/04 gave municipalities the right to manage allocations from the state budget and also the responsibility to develop annual municipal budgets. The Law also created consultative councils (CACs) where civil society representatives were able to influence the processes of municipal planning and budgeting. The current project Voices of Citizens for Urban Change built much of its strategy around making these instruments work to promote pro-poor urban development. The project promotes the collection of data, its transformation into information and uses the mechanisms of local forums to use knowledge to influence the CACs and local Government administrations. Poverty indicator monitoring and the creation of municipal profiles are parts of this process.
See annex 2013 PP of DSF Pedro Bramquima on CACS

In one of our Friday Debates we had a very interesting analysis on the functionality of the CACS, and the recommendations for the future.
See annex 2013 PP of DSF Pedro Bramquima on CACS

Annual state budget data published by the Ministry of Finance has not been shared in a disaggregated format with the CACs or civil society institutions. In fact, the lists of data and figures are daunting for even local Government authorities to understand and use in planning their local programs. Development Workshop and several other civil society organizations argue that this information needs to de-mystified so that it can be understood at both the national and local level.

To date it has not been possible to get access to current year municipal budgets. A lot of discussion on needs and possibilities for the municipal administrations on bairro improvement happens, and many plans get executed, but it happens in an ad hock way, not too transparent, and it is not always clear, what the chain of events has been.

But what we do see is that even the president of the country shows more and more interest in the Voices of the Citizens. He has made a surprise visit to some of the worst parts of Cazenga and met with a large youth group to talk about the struggles they face in their lives. The president’s convoy got stuck in a really bad piece of road, that should have been finished already long before. The president then questioned the ministers in charge of the repair project. They blamed each other for the delay. After this very public altercation the president decided to relieve the Minister of Construction and the Minister of Finance from their functions.
See annex 20130411 JORNAL DE ANGOLA Obras com nova dinamica
See annex 20130412 CONTINENTE President-sai-do-Palácio-e-vai-para-Cazenga
See annex 20130412 OPAIS President-avalia-obras-de-impacto-social-no-Cazenga

In general there is a growing tendency to publicize governmental information. More and more ministries are posting information online, and have websites with general information. The Ministry of Finance website is growing fast. That is part of the political wish for more transparency and an indicator for growing capacities and interest in supplying information to the constituency. Unfortunately on the expense reports, several quarters per year are available, but until the date writing not a full years’ information since 2007. See the official website at www.minfin.gv.ao/docs/dspRelExecOGE.htm

In order to be able to make a useful analysis of expenses versus planned, we need to have access to the full years’ data and means to check at least some of the actual expenses.

The government has made a report on their public spending for the year 2012. It has some interesting statistics, especially on the level of dependence on oil revenues and the lack of female participation until date. See annexe 2012 Government Public Spending Analysis

In the DW Angolan Media Scan (see also Milestone 9), made for every month, we collect press reports on the Angolan National Budget and its level of public investments and transparency. DW has made Media Scans on the State Budget OGE since 2008.

It shows the relation the press has with the government and the sometimes seriously different tone between the state media and other actors in the public domain.

For the year 2012 a thematic scan has been produced.
See annex DW Thematic Scan 2012 Angolan National Budget Public Investment and Transparency
DW supports several community newspapers, and several of them write critically about the budget development and the choice made. See annex 201302 INFORSAMBILA community newspaper, page 10 for a very good example.
And within the Angolan Government the political parties are quite open in their critique. See annex
20130227 GoA ignores opposition on accepting the National Budget

At the DW headquarters we have the Debates de Sexta Feira (DSF), every Friday afternoon a debate. Some of them covered the Angolan National Budget, Tax Developments Inclusive Planning, and Budget Monitoring.

See annex Anderson 2013_SAIIA_Angola tax policy brief

One of our co-workers became part of an international group focused on Budget Monitoring, supported in part by OXFAM. She followed a workshop attended by approximately 25 people from 9 different African countries on budget monitoring. The group is still in very close contact and share lots of data and interesting developments with each other. The training was in Burundi, in French, but training material was translated from the earlier training in Maputo. For easy reference I have included the English version of the material:
See annex OXFAM Training Material Budget Monitoring
See annex INESC Brochure Budgetmonitoring (ENG)
See annex OXFAM Ups and downs in the struggle for accountability

The 2013 Angolan budget is made in Angolan Kwanza’s and has again not been published in a reader friendly way. The total amount of the OGE is 6.635.567.190.477,00 Kwanza, 6.635 billion (in American English) Akz. An amount most people can’t even pronounce, let alone grasp. It would have been better to present the entire budget with 6 numbers dropped, by explaining all amounts are x 1,000,000.00 Akz.

This is an example of 2012. This way of budgeting is not easy to read, because you have to be very careful to see which amounts are parts of which calculation. See below the same part of the budget, now readable.

For 2013, the lay out has unfortunately not improved. What we do see is that the overall amount has increased significantly. From 4,5 billion to 6,6 billion. Which can in part be explained by the growth of the economy and the increase in tax income, but the increase comes probably mainly from more complete budgeting.

One of the main problems, faced by all stakeholders that have an interest is that it is still extremely difficult to get access to the Municipal budgets. At a recent EU delegation stakeholder meeting all NGO and CSO present told the same. They are asking and asking, but the local administrations are not delivering insight. The general consensus is that they are still too much looking up the power structure, as that is how they get appointed, and not down, to the people they should be providing services to. Nobody lower in the hierarchy wants to make the mistake of leaking the local budgets to ‘the public’. And unfortunately in these settings, doing nothing is always considered safer than taking a risk, or a decision.

If we compare the OGE 2012 to the OGE 2013 we see that in 2012 the total percentage managed from the central structure is 86,50 %.  And in 2013 it is even more centralized: 87.85 %.

How does that relate to the decentralization process? Especially if all the funds received in the decentralized structure need to be transferred to the central state coffers?

The Presidential Decree No. 307/10 is a major reversal of the decentralization process begun in 2007, (Law 07/04) when Municipalities were identified as “autonomous budget units”. The new decree’s requirement that all revenues from fees, licenses, fines levied by local government offices and their agencies should be compulsorily deposited in the State Treasury Single Account. 

The decree undermines any initiative of municipalities in generating their own finances through local taxes, service fees or rates since local income will not be retained but be reverted to the State’s National Budget. The Minister states that he wants to prohibit the creation of two budgets, suggesting (which is necessary if Municipalities are to gain any level of autonomy). By this decree, Municipal Authorities will remain completely dependent on transfers from Central levels of Government. That means municipal budgets are not disbursed equally. The municipalities have to prepare plans and budgets and request the funds from the central state coffers. This leads to delays, or even no requests made, as capacities for operational planning, project proposal writing, preparing budgets, etc,  are still rather low (although improving) at the Municipal Administration level.
Another problem is that the Municipal Administrations in general are understaffed, and many positions are politically appointed, not based on skills. This does not mean nothing happens. Lots of activities are happening, many improvements are made. But is not always clear how and when the budgets became available, and who is leading in the execution. We see a lot of different ‘Executive Programs’ that are managed by the Presidents’  Office, that circumvent the ministerial responsible structures.

We have some plans as examples:
See annex 2013 1st QRT Plan Municipal Administration Kilamba Kiaxi
See annex 2012 Cacuaco Municipal Plan

In the OGE large amounts are budgeted under ‘on-going activities’, ‘not specified expenses’ or ‘other costs’. Quite often the biggest amount will be booked under these budget lines. You can’t monitor these expenses through the year, as it is unclear what falls under these lines but staff costs are usually booked under these budget lines.  A budget is as transparent as its biggest amount that is unclear to the reader of a budget. This budget is unfortunately again full of large, unclear budget lines. Ongoing costs did, on a positive note, drop from 72.35% to 64.40%

The other main point of attention is that there are several programs working on water related issues, but the famous ‘Agua para Todos’ program is budgeted for a meagre 0.28 %. That is an improvement from last years’  0.23%.
The government puts a lot of emphasis on the ‘Agua para Todos’ program, but again the budget does not reflect that.
We keep promoting more emphasis on the community level management of access to water. Public stand posts first, and only then a shift to private house hold connections. As a large part of the population still does not have access to water in a sustainable and affordable way. Research shows that that the use per capita from private household connections increases between 8 to 10 times.
See annex 20130427 Newspaper on Agua Para Todos
See annex 20130327 Journal de Angola Agua potável é distribuida a mais casas


Budget Monitoring & Tax Justice

More and more attention is raised to transparent budgeting and pro-poor and inclusive planning. Several NGOs and international institutions are raising the issue higher on the agenda.

UNHCHR Human rights impacts of taxation, Human Rights Council set to examine

The human rights impacts of fiscal and tax policy will be the subject of an upcoming report by the Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and Extreme Poverty. The report, to be presented in June of next year (at the 26th session of the United Nations Human Rights Council) comes on the throes of growing scrutiny of economic policies by human rights advocates and will likely be welcome not just by them, but also by organizations that work on tax justice and revenue transparency issues and will draw reassurance from seeing their concern become a human rights issue.

The report offers a chance to develop further some of the contents of the Guiding Principles on Human Rights and Extreme Poverty ,adopted last year by the Human Rights Council. Principle 53 calls on States to make certain that adequate resources are raised and used to ensure the realization of the human rights of persons living in poverty. “Fiscal policies, including in relation to revenue collection, budget allocation and expenditure, must comply with human rights standards and principles, in particular equality and non-discrimination,” it reads.
See for more information: www.rightingfinance.org/?p=567


The Angolan OPSA (Observatório Político e Social de Angola), an organization that does Budget Monitoring and linking the results to the assessment of transparency, pro poor and participative planning states its concern.
See annex 20130617 OPAIS Online Fernando Pacheco of OPSA on transparency

And their analysis of the Angolan National Budget 2013.
See annex 2013 Angolan Budget Analysis by OPSA & ADRA

In the Angolan Media we also found several examples of critical analysis of the budgetary process.
See annex 20130503 Expansão OGE not complete and late

Timeline year 3: start 1st of August 2012, end 31st of July 2013. Total 12 months

Key Milestones Tab - annex for easy reference:  3rd year milestones

Addendum to the program: The Africa China Urban Initiative
Status Report per 31st of July 2013
Delivered on 20 August 2013


The Africa-China Urban Initiative is a collaborative undertaking of African and Chinese academic and research institutions, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and urban development practitioners. It seeks to increase positive outcomes of Chinese engagements in Africa and African partnerships with China through better informed policy and decision-making and shared good practice on urban development.

Overall Program Development

Activities in Progress

Beijing Follow up Conference

1. Status: Conference originally scheduled for late fall 2013 has been postponed due to other competing activities at the Centre for African Studies, Peking University. New target date is early 2014.

ACUI Website development  

A website on the initiative has gone online recently. The site will be a means for participants to share information with each other regarding their work and serve as a vehicle for disseminating information about the project and its outputs. It will also be the information hub for policies, research, training, and projects related to developing Africa and China partnerships on key urban issues.

The page can be found on http://urban-africa-china.angonet.org
Or via de DW website: http://www.dw.angonet.org/content/voices-citizens-urban-change


1. Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC): Maribel Gonzales and Prof. Haifang worked on developing a proposal for Chinese funding of a 2014 Africa China Urban Conference. A Proposal for CNY 500,000 (the maximum available) was submitted in June 2013. A decision is expected late October or November 2013.
2. Cities Alliance: Allan Cain met Billy Cobbett, director of Cities Alliance in Washington in April 2013 and discussed the ACUI. Cities Alliance expressed interest in becoming involved with the Initiative. Billy suggested that Cities Alliance may be interested in co-supporting some of the activities . There was a brief hiatus in engagement with Cities Alliance Secretariat with the changeover of the Secretariat host to the United Nations Offices for Project Services (UNOPS) and related changes. We expect this to resume in early September when the Secretariat’s physical move to Europe is completed. 
3. Carter Centre: Prof. Liu Haifang has met with the Carter Centre and is participating in developing a proposal on the theme of corporate social responsibility of Chinese companies operating in Africa. Discussions on financing are on-going.

Thematic Program Development

Housing Finance , Activities Underway:

1. Exploratory research on Chinese investment Johannesburg (various sectors).  Mostly desk research reviewing Chinese language media and websites in Johannesburg coupled with some interviews with journalists.
1.1.  Lead: Chinese intern from Peking University under the guidance of professors at School of Architecture & Planning University of Witwatersrand.
1.2. Budget: $1512 (support for living costs of intern) 
1.3. Status: Data collection completed. Research generated information on spatial effects of Chinese investment in Johannesburg and the business organization of Chinese in South Africa. Preparation of joint paper currently under discussion.
2.  Organizing panel discussion at the African Union of Housing Finance (AUHF) 29th Annual Conference on the theme Mobilizing Capital for Housing Finance  11-13 September 2013 in Mauritius
2.1. Panel Discussion on Understanding (and harnessing) Chinese investment interest Discussants: representatives from the Export-Import (Exim) Bank of China, China Africa Development Fund (CADFund), and the Chinese Academy of International Trade and Co-operation, a local Chinese investor. Moderated by Center for Africa Studies, Peking University and Development Workshop. Note:  CADFund is very interested and is sending a delegation of three staff members (air fare costs at their own expense). 
2.2. Budget: $18,0000
3. Organizing Small Group working meeting between ACUI and Chinese delegation at the sidelines of the AUHF Conference.
4. Board of Investment Mauritius meeting with Chinese delegation to discuss private equity (sideline event during the conference).

Urban Transport

Activities Completed:
1. Preparation of Concept Note on Pro Poor Roads  clarifies direction of Urban Transport WG’s activities, basis for proposal development
2. Proposal for a Public Transport Policy Network – Sub-Saharan Africa submitted to the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States and EU Secretariat Program in Science and Technology 
2.1. Objective:  Establish a SSA-based research, practice and public sector policy network equipped to contribute to more context-appropriate and energy-efficient public transport systems in SSA.
2.2. Target Group(s): Organizations and individuals in research, the private and public sectors and civil society active in the public transport arena in 12 cities in SSA.
2.3. Lead: University of Cape town, Centre for Transport Studies
2.4. Budget: EU581,546
2.5. Status: Unsuccessful
3. Proposal for  Towards Poverty Alleviation: Chinese-African Understandings of “Pro-poor roads” in Africa  submitted to the Presidential Innovation Grant, Columbia University
3.1. Objectives Develop a research agenda that addresses the current pressing need to ensure that large investments of road infrastructure in African cities draws on cutting edge, contextually sensitive engineering and social science knowledge and strives to improve conditions of urban life for the majority and the poor. Foster African-Chinese collaboration on important urban infrastructure questions
3.2. Target Group(s): African and Chinese engineers, planners and social scientists and their students
3.3. Lead: Center for Sustainable Urban Development (CSUD), Columbia University,  University of Cape town, Centre for Transport Studies and China Urban Sustainable Transport Research Center (CUSTReC)
3.4. Budget requested: $100,000
3.5. Status: Approval expected late August/early September. The plan is to leverage further funding from the Volvo Research and Education Foundations (VREF). Unfortunately the news reached us beginning September we were not selected.  It was very competitive but we will look for alternatives. In addition we will work on a revised version of this proposal to go to VREF and also have no problems if ACET would like to lead as the originator of the idea. The deadline for such a proposal is Sept 30th. There is no limit to the number of proposals each center can submit and this would be a wonderful opportunity to pull the 3 centers closer together and leverage the BMGF Funding.

Activities Underway:
1. Research on Savings and Credit Cooperative Organisations (SACCOs) as Operational Arrangements for Matatu Management: Case Studies from Kenya
1.1. Objective: Research and compare cases of intra-city SACCOs and the more established inter- city SACCOs and their impact on rationalizing management of operations. (Note: SACCOs were organised in response to Government legislation requiring operators to form cooperatives)
1.2. Lead: Institute of Development Studies, University of Nairobi
1.3. Budget: $9, 997
1.4. Status: ongoing  expected completion March 2014

Urban Land Access

Activities Completed:
1. A panel on Africa – China urban land was held in Johannesburg in collaboration with Urban LandMark. Three Chinese delegates were invited but two were unable to attend at the last moment.

Corporate Social Responsibility of Chinese Investors

The potential cooperation with Carter Centre is still undergoing. Last November, the small workshop called upon jointly by me and Sean Ding, Representative of the Chinese Office of Carter, attended by 4 Chinese CEOs , some Chinese scholars, the Chief CEO of Carter, Johnson Hardman, and other Carter staffs, turned to be a very constructive one. The Chinese business sector representatives, varying from EXIM Bank, to big SOE investing in African agriculture, communicating facilities, and Private Chinese company, all expressed very useful ideas on how to address CSR issues and where they were at the moment. We identified a common need across most types of Chinese companies operating externally, and concluded that to open some workshops to organize more exchanges for mutual learning and generating knowledge for wider range usage would be very useful!
Cooperation with Carter centre slowed down a bit due to their inner reorganization. However after May in which month they slightly finishing the process, new momentum is expecting to gain, and the Chinese office would still wish to focus on this theme jointly with PKUCAS. A meeting will be organized in November in Atlanta and substantial plan will be made during this meeting (academic workshop included).
In early September, Liu Haifang met a delegation from Macau University to discuss how to upgrade Macau's role in Chinese-Portuguese speaking Country's cooperation Forum, and my suggestion to operate CSR workshop was accepted by the delegation sent by Macau Municipal Government. Ideally there could be cooperation if after a while their report is accepted by this municipal.

The African Urban Transport Case Study

The Mazingira Institute had $10,000 left over from the July 2012  Nairobi workshop it co-hosted. Rather than return the funds to DW, it was suggested to that the African Centre of Excellence for Studies in Public and Non-motorised Transport (ACET) at UCT and the Mazingira Institute in Nairobi explore a collaboration to adapt Mazingira’s work on the Matutu as a case study for the project proposed in the Concept Note “Chinese-African Understanding of ‘Pro-poor roads’ in Africa.” The concept note was prepared by Lisa Kane and Roger Behrens  in October 2012. ACET will guide the preparation of the update. It was further suggested to use the methodology in the tool kit for preparation of case studies being developed by Nancy Odendaal of the African Centre for Cities at UCT.
Further discussion of the potential collaboration is expected. The plan is for Winnie Mitullah, ACET’s colleague in Nairobi, to meet with Davinder Lamba of Mazingira Institute. We look forward to this potential collaboration.
Some background information and critical assessments

See annex 2013 China Angola, a marriage of convenience? By Jon Shubert

Strategy for engagement with the Cities Alliance

Proposed cooperation

The Cities Alliance has been asked to undertake the range of functions that are associated with the role of our program officer. They have expressed they are excited by the opportunities that this will provide for them to offer us their support and, hopefully, find ways of further strengthening the work program initiated by the Gates Foundation. Wherever possible, they want to work with us to provide linkages to other partners, and Cities Alliance members, who can benefit from what we are doing, and also offer us support and new opportunities. They look forward to developing a strong relationship with Development Works. Developing Lusophone linkages and exchanging experiences with Mozambique and Brazil is one area that has been discussed informally.

The Cities Alliance Secretariat currently finds itself in a period of significant transformation, one which culminate in the relocation of the Secretariat from its current home in Washington DC to Brussels, Belgium, most likely during the first week of September 2013. Associated with this physical move will also be the changing of Trustee and host of the Secretariat, from the World Bank and the engagement of the United Nations Offices for Project Services (UNOPS), in providing administrative support to the program.

The Gates Foundation has made an agreement with the Cities Alliance that will become fully effective once the Cities Alliance has the support of UNOPS, with whom the agreement has been signed.

Allan Cain gave a presentation in South Africa for Urban Land Mark and Cities Alliance.
See annex 201306 AC PP Improving Land Tenure Security in Huambo Angola - (English)

 End July 2013 Allan Cain participated in a World Bank meeting in South Africa in a teleconference on the Cities Alliance. See annex WB Cities Alliance teleconference Pretoria

DW has also been invited to attend the Cities Alliance African strategy meeting in Johannesburg in October 2013.

Scoping study for State of Cities in Africa Program (SOCA)

The African Centre for Cities at the University of Cape Town has invited Development Workshop to prepare a scoping study on Angola and submit a proposal for the State of the Cities in Africa Report series funded by the Cities Alliance.  The State of the Cities in Africa Project is one effort to respond to the need for information, current data and timely evidence-based analysis on how cities in Africa function. Currently these processes have commenced in Botswana, Tanzania, Ghana and Ethiopia, and it is envisaged that the second phase of the project will include Angola and several other countries. The intent of this project is to support the preparation and development of State of the Cities reports based on the urban realities of Sub-Saharan Africa countries on a demand-driven basis. Angola, being one of the fastest urbanizing countries in the region will provide an interesting case study for SOCA.

Some other background documents
See annex 2010 UN State of the African Cities
See annex 201307 SDI website Making Cities Inclusive

African Urban Research Initiative (AURI)

The African Urban Research Initiative meeting, to be co-hosted by the African Centre for Cities (ACC) and Cities Alliance (CA) in Addis Ababa, from 20 to 21 March 2013. The purpose of the meeting, was to enable the networking of key actors in the urban research and donor fields, and to help formulate a shared strategic vision of how best donors and African scholars can work together to establish a more expansive network of practice-oriented research centres across Africa. Development Workshop Angola was invited along with 15 other African institutions (mainly university-based) researching urban issues. 

The meeting noted that the volume of African urban research output has decreased significantly since the early 1980s. It was recognized that urban research on the Portuguese-speaking countries of Southern Africa (Mozambique and Angola) tends to be produced by a combination of international research centres (for example, the African Studies Centre of the Instituto Universitário de Lisboa), local university-based centres (CAP at Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, as well as locally based NGOs. The issues of land markets and tenure security is also of particular interest in Angola, where Development Workshop (DW) has been involved in multiple research programmes to build municipal participatory planning and land reform capacity.

The meeting concluded that there is significant potential for the establishment of a regional comparative research network dedicated to building local capacity for applied urban research. It was noted however that the initiative will face challenges with respect to financial sustainability, Development Workshop chosen to participate, along with two other institutions, in a steering committee that would work with ACC towards setting up an inception meeting in early 2014 to launch the AURI initiative.

Tenure Security Facility Southern Africa Project

Urban LandMark’s Tenure Security Facility Southern Africa project, supported by Cities Alliance and with
co-funding from  UKaid, provided technical assistance  and  advisory services  on incrementally  securing
tenure in slum upgrading. The work aimed to contribute to improved access to land for poorer people, which
in turn would contribute to improved livelihoods, active citizenship and asset creation.  Five case studies were commissioned in the Southern Africa region including one that was implemented by Development Workshop on the issue of ‘administrative recognition’, which focused on the use of normative instruments that arose from policies or administrative practices to give residents more tenure security in the  form  of  municipal administrative  systems. A  ‘practice  note’  was by Development Workshop focusing on the development of the  occupation certificate and accompanying regulations. On 14th of June 2013 DW participated in  a  workshop, together  with the development partners for  each  of the  other  South African  sites. On the 29th of July a regional learning event was held by video conference (seen below) in five project countries with a link to the Cities Alliance at the World Bank in Washington.


Program and Results - the Voices of Citizens for Urban Change Program

In this report we focus on our progress and the intermediate results. In this 3rd  year we want to focus on the program implementation to date, the results are so far and our proposed adjustments to some of the strategies.

Milestones 3rd annual Interim Report

Objective 1 - To influence public policy through the participatory monitoring of the MDG urban poverty indicators
Activity/Milestone 1. Baseline diagnostic studies carried out and MDG maps produced.
Target month: 31

Focus group meetings

In the third year we have conducted a new round of focus group meetings, to establish the current situation in our municipalities of action. We have used an updated questionnaire, based on the urban poverty indicators adapted from the UNHabitat MDG recommendations.

Each focus group was composed of 7 to 15 selected residents and slum dwellers, including women, men and youth, in the specific bairro indicated. Strategically chosen people;  influential individuals and members of community groups (church leaders, presidents/representatives of key associations such as the OMA, JMPLA, resident’s committee, “coordenadores de bairro e dos sectores”). They represent their bairro, and answer on behalf of their bairro. So the answers show the mean level of access to and quality of services, constructions, etc. for their bairro.

See annex 2013 Revised Questionnaire Voices of Urban Citizens Project 3rd year database

We always keep the Municipal Administration advised on the progress of the implementation of the monitoring study, and get their approval to collect the data. By doing this we ensure buy-in from the MAs, so that they have a sense of ownership of the information and can influence their work after with the results from the questionnaires are shared. We also take care to always invite the Sobas, the traditional leaders.

In this picture the Soba is the gentleman in the khaki uniform.

One of our interns was present during the Focus Group Meetings and wrote the following report on the discussions. See annex DW focus group minutes of the discussion

As example: a filled out 3rd year questionnaire by a focus group from Cacuaco.
See annex 20130321 Questionnaire focus group Cacuaco

In the 3rd year we have done a total of 175 focus groups. The focus groups consisted in total of 1897 participants, 897 men and 1000 women, a 47%-53% ratio. A strong representation of women in the focus groups is considered extremely important, as they bear the brunt of the quality of service provision. In average there were 10.84 participants in a focus group meeting. They take several hours to discuss all the topics and decide which answers best represent their part of the catchment area.

Due to last years’ change in the municipal borders, we have decided to enlarge the catchment area of the study. So we have again added 3 ´former´ municipalities (Maianga, Samba and Ingombota) that were not part of the first baseline study, but already part of the 2nd baseline study. In this 3rd year we have again added 3 new areas for our baseline study: Belas, Quissama and Icolo e Bengo. We gave extra attention to these 3 new municipalities/comunas, as we did not cover that area in the previous round of questionnaires. The 6 new areas are all part of the Municipio Luanda.

Number of questionnaires done for the 3rd year presented per municipio/comuna

Number of questionnaires done for the 3rd year presented per municipio under the 'new' borders.

The partcipants per municipio / comuna; male and female.

As the focus group questionnaires will continue to be used annually throughout the runtime of the program, it will show improvements and/or deterioration on all the researched fields through the years. Each year we will ask our current and to be established focus groups to answer the questions again, so we can measure the improvements or deteriorations in the Municipalities throughout the 5 years leading up to 2015 (the target year for achieving the MDGs). Each questionnaire is entered in a database. It allows us to analyze the information and share with our Partner Organizations and feed the eventual updating of the Municipal Profiles.

Explanation of the focus group (questionnaire) format to database conversion

The information from our research is entered into MDG ‘poverty indicator’ maps. This research is based on several sources: the questionnaires, GIS mapping, geo-referencing, other DW research and research reports done by other stakeholders, such as NGOs and organizations (UN, WB, the Angolan Government via INE and IBEP).

These maps show per municipality or comuna the information per indicator; access to potable water, costs of water, population density, construction materials, road conditions, health services, educational services, etc (DW makes an important distinction between Coverage levels and Access levels. You can have water points all over the city, but if they are not functional, or deliver not enough water to satisfy the needs of the population, there is still an underperformance. The government only collects data on coverage; we are more interested in access. Do you have to wait in line for a few hours to have your turn at getting water? What are the consequences for the lives of women and girls because of that? Giving up school? Not enough income generation?). 

We used the information from the annual questionnaires and other studies to update the Municipal Profiles. DW involves the Municipal Administrations and their staff in the production and updating of the Municipal Profiles.

We now have the maps for 2011, 2012, and 2013, so we can show you a few examples.

2011 DW MDG map Access to Water

2012 DW MDG map Access to Water

2013 DW MDG map Access to Water

Analysis of Water Sector

We are covering an increasing number of administrative areas each year of the program, as we widen the geographic distribution of our data collection. The mapping of water indicators over the three years of the program illustrates a marked improvement in access in the areas where the project has been active in implementing the practice of community water management. In other parts of the  city the results are mixed. The Government has made significant investments in physical infrastructure through the “Water for All” program and a parallel provincial government program of making household water connections. The Government’s published figures measure “water coverage”. Using this methodology every household with a water connection and people leaving within a 200 meter radius of a standpost are considered to be “covered” by the service provided. Development Workshop bases its analysis on the concept of “access”. That means that data is validated by local consumers who verify their level of access to water as well as how much they need to pay for it (its affordability) and how much time they take to collect it. The measure of water access is therefore a participatory process and uses qualitative data collection tools. When the qualitative indicators are mapped over demographic information obtained by GIS remote-sensing information, quantitative estimates can be made with a reasonable level of accuracy.

Differences in indicators of results are found when using measurements of “coverage”  vs “access” due to poor maintenance of water networks, the vandalisation of stand posts or the fact that systems serving many household water connections have not yet been commissioned. New water treatment plants and water distribution networks are still under construction and their impact on the consumers’ perception of “water access” has not yet been felt. However in the municipalities where the Voices of Urban Citizens Project has organised stand post committees and water associations the improvement of access for consumers is reflected in the indicators.

The following maps show the variation of water prices across the city of Luanda based on a 20 liter bidon or bucket which is the common measure of sale at community stand posts or at the water tanks of private sellers. It can be seen that there is still a wide variation in water prices and that water is still a major financial burden on families in some parts of the city. However in areas that the project has introduced the community management system that water can be found at affordable prices. The coverage of community management MoGeCA has increased significantly in the third year of the program.

Maps showing variations in the costs of 20 litre bidon/jerrycan of water across the city of Luanda in 2012 & 2013

Cost of Water
Graph 5 below shows the average cost of 20 liters of water per Municipality in Angolan Kwanzas - Kz (AOA) as indicated by the Focus Group Discussions (FGD) for the two years, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Rangel and Viana registered a decrease with 20Ltr of water going at 50Kz and 49Kz in 2011 compared to 23Kz and 39Kz respectively in 2012. On the other hand Cacuaco, Cazenga, and Sambizanga show a rise for 2012 and 2013. Water prices have peaked in 2013 in some areas where the newly extended water network has not yet gone into service.

Graphs 5: Average cost of 20Ltrs of water (2011-2012-2013 comparison)

Water Sources
Graphs 6 and 7 below show an estimation of households with piped running tap water connected to their houses as represented by participants of the (FGD) in 2013. For 2013, 65% the Focus Groups - FGs in Cazenga said there moderate or intermittent access to household water access in their neighborhoods. In Cacuaco, Kilamba Kiaxi, and Sambizanga, there is slightly less households with connections compared to those without connections. Viana presented good distribution with almost all of the FGs saying all houses in the neighborhood are connected. It appears that in 2013 the proportion of households with water connections have reduced in some areas due to the slow delivery of water to some of the new pipe networks that have been installed.

Graph 6: Households with canalized tap water connected to their house (2013)

Graph 7: Households depending on stand posts as their principal source of water.

The Graph 8 below illustrates the perception of water quality by geographic area. This shows a wide variation of opinion across Luanda. In Belas more than half the population surveyed have little or no confidence in the water quality. These are communities served by water cistern trucks. In Cazenga and Sambizanga the majority of people served by stand posts  have a moderate confidence in water quality while in Viana where most families have household water connections there is a high level of confidence in the water quality for drinking purposes.


Graph 8: Perception of water quality for drinking

Graph 9: Time to fetch water (household distance measured in minutes from water source); percentage of Households that fetch water within less than 15 minutes of their homes.

Percentage of Households that fetch water within 15 to 60 minutes of their homes.

Percentage of Households that fetch water more than 60 minutes of their homes.


The principal carriers of water from standposts and other sources in Angolan households are women and children. Gender issues are mainstreamed in all DW programs. The questionnaire has specific questions to assess the position of women and girls. The baseline questionnaire shows the # of women consulted on the current level of services and other indicators in their neighborhood. 

2011, 2012, 2013 Maps of the access to sanitation (CLICK MAP TO ENLARGE):


Analysis of Sanitation Sector
Sanitation remains a major challenge in the city of Luanda. Household solid waste collection has improved progressively across the city and neighborhood collective containers have been provided across the city for night-time pickup and removal. Household pickup was an goal set by the provincial sanitation company but has not been introduced on a wide scale as yet. Rubbish container removal from musseque zones remains a problem, particularly in the rainy season. There has been no substantial new investment in the city centre’s sewage system. Luanda has no sewage treatment plant and both grey water (rain) and black-water (containing fecal and other contaminants) are fed into the same system that was inherited from colonial times. Development Workshop has promoted improved household latrines as an intermediary solution for peri-urban and informal settlements. Work still needs to be done on sludge removal systems for septic tanks and latrines. ELISAL, Luanda’s sanitation company still  has inadequate capacity to deal with pit-emptying. Flooding and  storm water run-off remains a serious problem every year in Luanda. Civil works on a storm water channel management system progresses slowly. The problem is exacerbated by the use of water channels for depositing rubbish during the dry season causing flooding at the beginning of every rainy season. The project has encouraged the discussion of these issues in the Municipal Forums and CAVS. Community water committees and ACAs promote the concepts of “community lead total sanitation (CLTS)” and social mobilisers and water caretakers have been trained in CLTS tools and social marketing.
The analysis after the 3rd round of questionnaires gave us the following information:
Neighborhood Sanitary Conditions/Situation
Graph 1 shows the changes in sanitary conditions in the tree years 2011 to 2013 in the neighborhoods compared to other areas of the city. We can note that Cazenga improves from 100% bad in 2011 to 55% good, 35% acceptable in 2013, and only 12% bad in 2013. Cacuaco and Kilamba Kiaxi also register some improvement. On the other hand Rangel’s Sambizanga’s, and  Viana’s sanitary situation has degraded a little in 2013 as compared to 2011.

Graph 1: Comparative Sanitary conditions in the neighborhoods (2011 – 2012 - 2013)

Graph 2 below represents the percentage of respondents who have garbage collection services in the neighborhoods comparing 2011,2012 and 2013. The graph shows improvements in Cazenga, Sambizanga and Viana with Kilamba Kiaxi showing a slight improvement. Cacuaco shows no change, but in Rangel the situation deteriorated over the three years. The situation in Ingombota, Maianga, and Samba is acceptable, as those are developed urbanized areas.

Graph 2: Existence of garbage collection services (2011-2012 comparison with 2013)



Household Sanitary Conditions
Graphs 3 show an approximation of households who have lavatories inside their house or latrines adjacent to their housing as represented by the Focus Groups in 2011, 2012 and 2013 respectively. In 2011 52% of Cacuaco’s FGs said none of them had a lavatory inside the house, 40% said few of them had, and 8% said half the group had. Whereas in 2013 all of Cacuaco’s FGs said few of them had. Cazenga and Kilamba Kiaxi show very slight changes over the two years. Viana shows a good shift for the better. In 2011 50% of Viana’s FGs said none of them had a lavatory inside their house, 38% said few had, and 12% said many of them had, whereas in 2013  over 25% said they had moderate to good access to  lavatory inside their houses. 
Graph 3: Households that have lavatories inside their house (2011 – 2012 - 2013)


2011, 2012 and 2013 Maps of population density (CLICK MAP TO ENLARGE):


Analysis of demographic trends and overcrowding

density in the city of Luanda has been tracked by development
workshop over the 11 years since the end of the civil war. DW’s
studies have shown that, while rural-urban migration was the
principal factor in growth of Luanda during the conflict it continued
to be a factor in the post-war period. The large return of displaced
persons (IDPs) that Government planners expected after the ceasefire,
did not happen in Luanda. However the monitoring of housing densities
on the basis of bairros demonstrates a gradual reduction of
population in the inner-city high density neighborhoods where land
values have increased steadily and a process of gentrification has
occurred. This process is largely due to market forces and decisions
of residents to cash in on land values and move to the periphery.
While Government planners wish to achieve these same goals, few state
interventions have been implemented in these areas to date.


2012 and 2013 Maps of the quality of housing 

Analysis of the Housing Sector
The one million houses programme was announced in 2008 and promised for completion by the end of 2012. he housing programme is not delivering as expected and that the homes that have been built often remain unoccupied and are poorly located, unaffordable, or include plots for directed self-construction which remain empty because of the high cost of labour. In 2013 a large number of middle-class housing units subsidized by the state have been released on to the market but even with subsidized mortgages will serve mainly better-paid civil servants. The one million houses programme has mainly fallen short in supporting the self-help housing sector which was anticipated to provide more than two-thirds of the units. 
2011, 2012 and 2013 Maps of secure land tenure (CLICK MAP TO ENLARGE):




Analysis of the Land Tenure Issue

The State has failed to produce sufficient sites and serviced plots of land with secure tenure to meet the needs of large segment of the population who in 2013 still can not use their untitled land to guarantee bank mortgages. The 2013 study shows that the only municipality where land tenure security has increased over previous years in Viana where the Government has undertaken new housing investments and where land reserved have been created.
Development Workshop continues to advocate on land tenure issues with the aim of piloting good practices at the Municipal Administration level and promote the adoption of international land rights policies at the national level. Development Workshop has participated in the Tenure Security Facility Southern Africa project, supported by Cities Alliance and Urban LandMark. (See link http://www.dw.angonet.org/forumitem/773) DW has become the principal proponent of the Social Land Tenure Domain Model (STDM) in Angola and has trained Municipal Administrations and their technical staffs in building cadastral systems built on the STDM system. (See link http://www.dw.angonet.org/forumitem/676).
Gender issues are mainstreamed in all DW programs. The questionnaire has specific questions to assess the position of women and girls. The baseline questionnaire shows the # of women consulted on the current level of services and other indicators in their neighborhood.
From the media:

Municipal Profiles
We used the information from the annual focus group questionnaires and other studies to update the Municipal Profiles. DW works with the Municipal Administrations and their staff in the production and updating of the Municipal Profiles. 
For Viana we have worked from several sources (a previous profile, new data from the DW focus groups, specific research already done for the Online Atlas Viana, IBEP data) to develop an updated profile.
For the other municipalities we are still using the versions from previous years, as we are in the process of making Online Municipal Atlases (see below).
We will not make a new Municipal Profile for the Municipality of Luanda. That municipality is massive in every aspect, number of inhabitants, levels of service provision and very divers. Common sense is for the time being to keep working with the municipal profiles we have already, but start to refer to them as district of Sambizanga, etc. 
Municipal atlas
DW started the development of Municipal Atlases, based on the MGD monitoring tools. They will be turned into printed books, but mainly used on an online platform, the forum.angonet.org. Each municipality will have its own online platform, with all useful information to advocate for better living standards in their areas.
The first one is up and running, the Cazenga Atlas! We have an online version, to be found at http://cazenga.forum.angonet.org. It has sections on the data, coming from different sources, including DW questionnaires, it has blogs for the different stakeholders to communicate and share information with each other. Journalists use and comment on the forums. This is really a maajor step into the future of information dissemination. All stakeholders can have their say online, the information is available to everybody, it is evidence based, and it promotes inclusive planning. We invite you to really check this out online!
It is also possible to download a PDF version of the Atlas, to be printed and/or used in an offline surrounding. We have developed a poster, to be printed at a huge format, to be donated to the municipal administrations office. We will distribute it to any and all ‘public’ places in the area. We have seen with previous posters that they are happy to hang them somewhere, and once they are up, they keep them there forever….
The poster is also available, for free, at the website, all is superbly easy to download and share for free as wanted.


Example of a page of  the PDF version of the Cazenga Atlas and the poster we use at training and workshops.
At the time of writing two more atlases are being developed: Viana and Cacuaco. These will be delivered in the same fashion hopefully during the 4th year of the program.
We have attached the PDF versions (available in 2 languages)of the Atlas and the Posters to be used for Social Mobilizing.
ANGOcities 2013: Feira dos Municipios e Cidades de Angola (Sociedade)

See the YouTube announcement on http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iYtbrFd-FTU

The Cazenga Atlas will be presented by DW at the Angocities 2013, a national conference for all municipal administrations. It was originally planned for the beginning of August, but has been postponed until the 4th of October 2013. It will be a four day massive feira where all municipal administration are to show their work and plans for the future.

DW has been asked in two booths to participate, and we will use some of our space to present the Cazenga Atlas to the larger public. We will use a big screen and an online version of the Atlas, to show the public how to use the Atlas (an offline version will also be available, just in case internet fails on these important days). We of course hope and expect that more municipal administrations will be interested in developing such a tool for their own municipality.

DW will be present in two booths, for the municipalities of Cazenga and Huambo, to support the municipal administrations in their presentations. It shows our strong cooperation with the lower level government structures, that they invited us to participate in such a prestigious and visible event. The media (state and private) will be covering the event, giving the Atlas lots of exposure.
Activity/Milestone 2. Five ACOs trained in monitoring tools in each municipality.
Target months: 34

In the third year of the program we have done several trainings. The trainings and workshops focused on using the monitoring tools, but also on network development, establishing new ACO’s and communicating with the service providers. We give leadership trainings and create network moments when and wherever we can. It is very important to understand the collection of data on poverty indicators, but much more important to use that information in the most useful way. We teach and support the local groups in the whole cycle.

Oxford policy influencing and advocacy training

Willy Piassa, manager of DW’s Urban Governance Sector attended a course on policy influencing and advocacy in Oxford, UK. The course was provided by INTRAC and ran from 8 to 12 July, 2013.

This course gave participants a thorough understanding of how to influence the policy making process in their own context to achieve policy change. Learning skills were presented to help participants to plan and deliver effective advocacy strategies; enhance their ability to lobby decision makers; and gain confidence in the ways in which they relate to different audiences. They had a more thorough understanding of power dynamics in an advocacy context.

The course was attended by participants from seven different countries.

Objectives of the course
At the end of the course, participants were expected to:
• Be able to identify different approaches to advocacy and the values and strategies that underlie them
• Be familiar with the stages of the advocacy planning cycle and be better equipped to build an advocacy strategy
• Be able to analyse the external environment and policy processes and identify appropriate ‘levers of influence’
• Have examined how to make lobbying, media work, and popular mobilisation effective
• Have reviewed appropriate tools and methods for monitoring and evaluating advocacy initiatives.

Dissemination and Replication
A total number of 11 workshops have been organized during the months of July, August and September 2013. We brought togehter different stakeholders: Urban Governance staff DW, Forum Promotors, people from the Municipal Civil Society network, CSO activists, members of the LUPP network.

See annex 201307 Replicating Oxford Training Advocacia e Influência de Politicas ppt WP

Giving these trainings on network development and how to manage such a network, leads to an active civil society, that is pro active in engaging in the political arena and demanding and defending their rights. Not only at the municipal forums, but also in getting their stories in the municipal and other media. They address their challenges by calling in to the local radio stations that hold debates, or where politicians are being interviewed, talking about it after church services, etc.

Training to develop female leadership
In July we gave a 3 day training to promote and develop female leadership in Cazenga. We worked together with Dona Eunice Inacio, one of the famous freedom fighters of Angola, once long listed for the Nobel Peace Price.

The training got some media attention.

See annex 20130724 ANGOP DW workshop Female leadership Cazenga
We have made the following case studies of the cycle of events:
See annex 2012 Casestudy Sambizanga
See annex 2013 Casestudy  Cazenga - Papuseco
See annex 2013 Casestudy Sambizanga – Rui
See annex 2013 Casestudy Tala Hady - Papuseco

While there are many demands for the services rendered by municipal and communal administrations, their staff is rarely trained on how to manage essential tools that can help them do their work more effectively. With the training provided by DW, the administrative staff from the Cazenga municipal administration is now able to produce documents such as residence certificates and land titling quicker. This has helped reduce the work load and the waiting list.

DW and IFAL (the National Local Government Training Institute) are working together very regularly and DW staff is engaged in several IFAL training components as trainers. See also Milestone 3.

See annex 20130731 VCUC Partner Organisation details for the updated (we engage with more CSOs throughout the years and new CACS and ACAs are formed) list of partner organizations. In this contact information sheet we also assess the strength of the partner organization (PO). So we can follow up on capacity building with the weaker Partner Organizations. We have indicated where available the disaggregated numbers of males and females in the POs, and the same for the management level of the organizations.

In 2013 we had 102 CBO/CSO/ACAs, with 2146 male and 1007 female members; of them 132 men and 162 women were part of the management structures. That is slightly under the number we presented for 2012, but we have cleaned up the list and are still in the process of updating the information for all Partner Organizations. As you can see, for many organizations we miss the number of members, or it is not yet segregated for males and females.

Nonetheless, considering the Angolan context that is a very high score on female participation. 

Activity/Milestone 3. Training conducted for municipal administrations in using MDG indicators & mapping.
Target months: 35

Training the municipal Administration Staff at IFAL

The Ministry of Territorial Administration, through its National Local Government Training Institute – IFAL, promoted a 3 month training program for municipal administrations from 40 municipalities across the country. The aim is to equip the administrators with tools that will help them promote a more sustained development by making the most of the locally available resources. Through the various advocacy and policy influencing processes that DW has been carrying out with the Ministry, DW was asked to train the administrators on how to instill and establish Participatory Management and Participatory Urban Planning.

By being chosen to share and replicate its experience with such prominent entities as municipal administrations, shows how much the Angolan government values the contribution is making in promoting a more inclusive municipal governance. DW’s technical staff is now being invited to go to other municipalities outside of Luanda to assist them implement effective participatory systems by training both municipal administration staff members and civil society representatives.

Willy Piassa, Program Manager DW Urban Governance, gave a course in June 2013, at the National Training Institute for Local Administration (IFAL). The course was on Participatory Management and was attended by 40 municipal managers from all over Angola.

The course presented the principles of participative management and the effects on the team, not just the designated managers and the influence of decisions on the organization.
It is not the same thing as community or cooperative management, where all staff/participants have the same weight in the decision-making process. By a majority vote or consensus, the results will be clear. The importance of decisions that are made in conjunction with the team, will be supported (unless there is suspicion of decisions made illegally or immoral in obscure circumstances.) At the level of community participation and buy-in by the citizens, participatory management brings many benefits.

See annex 201306 IFAL Training Manual Participatory Planning by DW
See annex 201306 IFAL Training Manual Planning, Implementation and Evaluation by DW

Allan Cain, General Director of DW, gave a course in May 2013 at IFAL on Urban Planning.

See annex 201305 IFAL Training Manual Urban Planning by DW

See also the DW website where we post some of our activities: www.dw.angonet.org/content/training-courses

DW continued carrying various capacity building sessions involving community members, resident commissions and staff from municipal and communal administrations.

Some examples of trainings given by DW or supported by DW:
See annex 201305 workshop CACS Cacuaco Cazenga Viana
See annex DW Manual on Community Development

Adao Adriano, DW staff, is also involved in IFAL as a trainer. He is a specialist in decentralization and participative planning.
See annex 2013 DW IFAL training Decentralization and CS Participation
See annex 2013 DW IFAL training Decentralization and CS Participation Training Manual

Brazil Exchange visit

DW prepared and executed a exchange visit to Brazil. We took 13 members of the municipal administrations (from Cazenga, Viana and Cacuaco), active leaders of the Angolan CS and DW staff with us. The exchange was held in São Paulo from 17 to 27 April, 2013.

The exchange was facilitated by the Interaction Network of Brazil who is a member of the International Network of Residents of Informal Settlements - SDI (Slum Dwellers International). The purpose of the exchange was to learn from Interaction Network and its partners on issues related to self and community organization forms of engagement between communities and local governments.

The exchange was structured in three parts. (1) meetings with government institutions and civil society, especially the secretary of housing, the city of Osasco, POLIS Institute, representing the Cities Alliance and the Interaction Network. (2) the experiences of social movements in their relationship with the local government. (3) visits to housing projects and community achievements result of processes of engagement between local authorities and community groups.

The Angolan delegation receives an explanation from the Brazilian community committees on how they work with the local administrations to improve the living standards in their areas.

See annex 2013 Relatório da viagem de intercâmbio ao Brasil
See annex 201304 Agenda Angola Brazil Exchange Visit
Please look at the online reporting on this exchange visit for further information: www.dw.angonet.org/content/viagem-de-interc%C3%A2mbio-ao-brasil-0

Other training activities

In May the GIS technician was part of a 3 day training on Geographical Information Systems management together with several members of different municipal administrations. See annex 20130527 GIS training report Massomba

On 17th and 18th  2013 DW gave a training on the methodology and tools for the development of a municipal profile in the municipality Cacuaco. The training was facilitated by DW’s Willy Piassa and Tome de Azevedo, both part of the Urban Governance team. The training was organized in partnership with the Social Support Fund (FAS, a governmental organization) with the participation of the municipal administrators and technical staff members of the municipalities of Cacuaco, and the comunas Icolo e Bengo and Dande, in addition to civil society representatives of these municipalities.  The training was for 40 people. The training was developed based on the paradigm developed by various partners, including DW and approved by IFAL. In the end, every municipal administration and its civil society representatives developed a schedule of activities and budget plans for preparing or updating the profile of each municipality. The FAS is prepared to support each of these municipalities. This relates to our activities and strategy in Milestone 2. We always try to combine the trainees to come from both the CSOs and the MA. We do this for a reason: networking is a very important part of influencing the MA and their work. In the Angolan context it helps a lot to know the people working in service provision personally, to get things done. So if we can bring the groups together in trainings and workshops, it brings down the barriers already.

The case studies mentioned in Activity/milestones 2 show clearly the cycle of actions and the improving cooperation between the MA and the CSOs.
Activity/Milestone 4. Results of MDG mapping presented at annual Municipal Forums.
Target months: 14, 26, 38, 50

The DW staff regularly gives presentations to different stakeholders at different levels. You can find many examples on the DW website http://www.dw.angonet.org/content/forums We use the knowledge in training, workshops, meetings, reports, press statements, the online Atlas, at conferences, etc.  With these presentations they spread knowledge about the current situation in the municipalities and strengthen the name of Development Workshop as a leader and a serious and supporting partner in the fight against urban poverty.

The program does an annual review using the community diagnostic tools to measure poverty indicators in the municipalities across Luanda. The program focuses on building communications and synergies with the aim of reinforcing the Angolan local governance process and through that improve service provision to all, especially the citizens living in the musseques. We promote the effective implementation of urban public policies, acting as a facilitator of the planning processes and encourage the municipal participatory planning. This catalyses more informed debate, more collective organization and practical actions in the monitoring of public policies at the provincial, municipal and communal levels. Several meetings brought together the same stakeholders that would also meet on a Municipal Forum. So the meeting may not be called a Municipal Forum, but it would have the same impact.

Meetings take place at every level, bairro, comuna, municipality, province and national. Some meetings are with and by CSO only, some with CSO and MA or other government representatives. All of them lead up to and influence the development agenda. The media is also targeted to write and broadcast about the issues of the community concern.

With wide anti-government protests that were carried out by young people in Luanda and in the other big cities of Angola, the President decided to start a national Consultative Debate with young people and their representatives. As the majority of the population is young, the government has (finally) realized that unless the economy is able to create enough opportunities for children and the youth, we cannot say there is development and a feeding ground for potential civil unrest. Developments elsewhere in the world have shown the risk in that.
The consultative spaces that have been created go in line with the CACS that were more municipal or communally located.  Now the provincial governor and the directors of the main public service sectors also participate in these meetings in order to hear what the community proposes.

This is a great victory to organizations like DW that have built social capital at the community level to ensure that there are active citizenship organizations that engage with local and provincial governments. In the last few years, DW and its partners at the community and provincial levels have advocated for a permanent and more systematic engagement with the participation of the central government. The CACS have not always produced the results that community practitioners were expecting. Maybe because of a  weak supervision by the Ministry of Territorial Administration, or lack of skills, some municipalities across the country have never held any meeting.
In Luanda DW has been training resident commissions (comissão de moradores) so as to equip them to act as advocate for their communities. Members of these commissions are now very active in engaging with the local government and the service providers.  Until very recently resident commissions were used more to defend and expand the interests of the ruling party and they often were in contradiction with the community members they were supposed to defend. With the training that DW has been giving them, they have realized that they are also part of the communities and their main goal should be to ensure there are more services and improved living conditions for residents.

The engagement, negotiation and consensus building spaces that resident commissions, community leaders and other stakeholders have been holding with municipal administrations and service providers in Luanda have proved to be very effective. Services such as electricity, water and road pavement in Cacuaco, Viana, Cazenga and Sambizanga have been discussed and approved in some of these multi-stakeholder meetings.
 To give a few other examples:

The Technical Office for Urban Upgrading (Requalification)

Allan Cain and Willy Piassa have established close working relations with the special technical department in charge of the upgrading (requalification) of the (former) municipalities Sambizanga, Rangel and Cazenga. They want to work in a strong participatory way, and have sought DWs’ technical assistance in reaching that.

GTRUCS is active online and has posted their work on Facebook: www.facebook.com/GTRUCS

In 2013 a lot of progress has been made: Having completed the technical aspects of the work plan for the  Cazenga municipality and the urban districts of Sambizanga and Rangel , the Technical Office of Rehabilitation of those locations (GTRUCS) in partnership with the municipal administration of Cazenga, held a meeting with the municipalities to present the first draft of that instrument. The meeting was attended by the administration staff Cazenga, CACS representatives and members of civil society, DW staff members from the Urban Governance team, the research department and the GIS technicians. In total it was a meeting of about 150 people.

From right to left: Bastos de Oliveira - Cazenga vice administrator, Bento Soito – Coordinator of the Cazenga and Sambizanga Upgrading Office; representative from the Ministry of urbanism and construction.

The purpose of the meeting was to present the draft plan to all stakeholders, collect contributions on the areas that need to be safeguarded or improved. The architect Benedict Soito, GTRUCS Coordinator, gave a brief presentation on the process of preparing the plan directory and methodology that has been used to ensure that the instrument is as solid as possible. He also explained that upon completion of the work of technicians GTRUCS, those who still want suggestions may do so by addressing to the municipal administration or office of GTRUCS. The GTRUCS will soon open an office in Cazenga. The reclassification does not foresees the displacement or relocation of the residents to areas outside the city.

See for a more elaborate explanation of this very strong example of proper cooperation between the municipal administration and the citizens:
See annex 20121109 - GTRUCS Encontro de consulta para a requalificação do Cazenga

The 1st Communal Forum Cazenga on Water

On the 25th of October 2012 a public forum was held to discuss the access to water situation in Cazenga, the Water for All Program, the growing population and the role of the Municipal Administration. DW held a presentation on the systems of capitalization, distribution, rationing and treatment of water.

See annex 20121025 Program 1st Comunal Forum on Water Cazenga

National Urban Forum

After having two last year, we had none in this reporting year. The National Urban Forum is promoted by the Ministry of Urbanism and Housing and it usually takes place between August and October every year. Last year, this period coincided with the national elections and the forming of the government. It was not clear whether the then minister and some of his officials would continue in the office. Therefore, it was not possible to call all the stakeholders including the provincial governments to meet and discuss settlement issues. But the groups that would come together at the NUF see each other at several of the other actvities of the program.

Provincial Civil Society Conference
The Urban Poverty Network holds two major meetings every year, one of them being the Provincial Civil Society Conference where they analyse the major advocacy and policy influencing issues tackled throughout that year and the strategies to continue unlocking doors in the following months. The last such meeting took place in CEFOJOR last year in October.

Media outlets
In the different newspapers DWs work is mentioned on a very regular basis. This is one of the best ways to spread our knowledge and influence the service provision levels in the city. See activity/milestone 6 and 9 on the Angolan Media Scans and other media proofs.

DW has developed a DVD about the situation at communal schools. How they struggle with bad buildings, leaking roofs, some even without roofs, no material, overcrowded classes, underpaid teachers, etc. It shows how the students and teachers are trying to improve the situation and make the best of it nonetheless. The movie is used at meetings with communal and municipal administrations, to advocate for better services to these schools.
See annex Movie Communal Schools

The 6th National Civil Society Conference

The 6th National Civil Society Conference was held in the province of Huila in the beginning of December 2012. As always many members of the Luanda Urban Poverty Network (LUPN) were present in the meeting. The LUPN are representatives of the provincial conference in the province of Luanda that happened before the national meeting. They were responsible for taking the conclusion and recommendations of the Luanda conference to the National Conference. The CS movement is growing at a very rapid pace in Angola. The Poverty Network will ensure that recommendations and follow up points are taken seriously in Luanda.

Willy Piassa, DW Urban Governance manager, gave one of the presentations, on the state of the MDGs in Angola.
See annex 20121213 Willy Piassa PP at National Conferência da Sociedade Civil - Angola e os ODMs

For the full report on the 6th National CS Conference, see annex 20121211 - Report 6th National CS Conference - Humpata

Institute for Democratic Development
DW supported a provincial conference on the Economic growth of Angola and the influence on the lives of the citizens. Several politicians, professors from Universities and Civil Society representatives came together to debate the issues, the role of politics, and how to reduce the bad poverty indicators Angola still shows.
See annex 201303 IDD conference preparation and plan

Municipal Forums
Two Municipal forums were held in each of the municipalities of Cazenga, Viana and Cacuaco, while two Communal forums were held in each of the Districts of Sambizanga and Kilamba Kiaxi. 

During the reporting period several municipal and communal forums were held in all the municipalities. Community groups and associations engaged amongst themselves to discuss ways of building synergies and agree on best strategies to engage with service providers and the various provincial and central government working commissions that have been working in the respective municipalities. The combination of all these meetings, workshops and trainings gives a constant sharing of information and raising of expectations between stakeholders, and keeps the pressure on all of them to perform their duties. An example of the meeting matrix of some of the project officers at DW Advocacy team, the WATSAN team and the GIS technician: see annex 20130731DW team Meeting Matrixes combined

World Urban Forum
The WUF was held from 01-07 September in Naples, Italy. This was the 6th edition of the World Urban Forum, under the theme "The Urban Future." It had 10.000 participants from 185 countries. Willy Piassa attended on behalf of DW and the Angolan Civil Society. The event featured a strong presence of a delegation of the Urbanisation and Housing Ministry which promoted the work of urban requalification of Sambizanga, Cazenga, Cacuaco and Kilamba. In addition to the elements assigned to the Ministry, the delegation was also composed of journalists from TPA, TV Zimbo, Angop and Jornal de Angola.
For more information the report on the WUF: See annex 201209 World Urban Forum Napels Italy

It shows a great variety of meetings, forums, workshops, at many different levels, on many different subjects. By constantly engaging with all stakeholders at all levels we keep the work going.

In milestones 2 we already gave a few examples through case studies on the chain of events.

Objective 2 – To build an Urban Poverty Network to advocate for improved and equitable access to basic services
Activity/Milestone 5: Organize Municipal Forums on 6 monthly basis.
Target months: 7,14,19, 26, 31, 38, 43, 50, 55

As explained in Activity/Milestone 4 we have had many meetings, that are not necessarily called Municipal forums, but bring together the same stakeholders and have the same goal and impact. We try to get as much exposure for the LUPN as we can, in all possible forms and shapes.

During the reporting period several municipal forums were held in all the municipalities. These Forums discussed the provision of basic services, road infrastructures, sanitation and housing. A lot of attention is also given to the social fabric of the society. There is a lot of attention of youth, crime levels, lack of access to decent work, domestic and gender based violence. DW believes strongly all these issues need to be addressed, and will participate in these debates also as much as possible. If people, and especially women are not safe in their own homes or neighborhoods, that will affect the service delivery also. The conclusions and recommendations of the meetings were discussed taken to the CACS meetings which are led by the municipal administrators. 
The aim is for the municipal LUPN to meet on a monthly basis. But since there have been discussions on municipal and provincial civil society conferences, which are being promoted by LUPN, the meetings have been taking place more regularly. Some municipalities hold meetings every other week, while others almost every week.

The LUPN leadership group decides what they think to be convenient for them. We provide technical assistance in terms of methodology but we try not to make any decision on their behalf. The city-wide LUPN continue meeting regularly on a monthly basis.

Friday debates – Debates de Sexta Feira

Every Friday, DW’s research department organizes the Debate de Sexta Feira. The Friday Debate. Every week we have a speaker, or a group of speakers, and we have presentation with a debate afterwards. These debates have been gathering media attention and we have more and more regular visitors to the debates. We try to react to current affairs, and always try to link the debate issues to our work in the communities. We received some media attention also. The Friday Debate is published on our Facebook Website and the invitation is send to the same group of people that have subscribed to the monthly DW Angolan Media Scans. The focus on the Friday Debate is to have a more academic approach to poverty eradication. We have many speakers with an academic background and view on the matters at hand.

We post the MP3, pictures and presentations used on the DW website for the general public.
See http://www.dw.angonet.org/content/friday-debates
Listen to http://archive.org/search.php?query=uploader%3A%22angolaenglish%40gmail.com%22&sort=-publicdate

An example of the monthly invitation for the DSF, with speakers from the UK, Harvard University, and some of the other topics we had in the last half year.

See annex 2013 PP of DSF Pedro Bramquima on CACS
See annex 201307 DSF Daio on Sustainable Urban Planning WB
See annex Anderson 2013_SAIIA_Angola tax policy brief

Other advocacy activities

Willy Piassa is part of several work groups and joins meetings at all levels (CLICK TO ENGLARGE).

The Lisbon International Conference

In October 2012 on of our research colleagues was invited to give a keynote speech on the International Conference in Lisbon on Angola, Lessons from a Country in Transition. Helga gave a presentation on the Informal Markets in Angola.

See annex 201210 PPP on Angolan Informal Market at Lisbon Conference

And an article in the Journal de Angola:
See annex 201210 Jornal de Angola on Lisbon Conference

DW as a research facility and knowledge center

The CEDOC center and DW library are unique in Angola, many unique documents are stored, and more and more are digitalized and posted on the ever expanding DW website and online library.

See www.dw.angonet.org/online_library

Activity/Milestone 6. Community media articles or broadcasts covering the Municipal Forum debates.
Target months: At least 10 x.

Radio shows

Radio National did a full radio show on the Urban Poverty network.

Activists from Viana and Cazenga came to the studio on the Day af the African Woman to talk about prevention of domestic violence, HIV/AIDS and citizens’ participation

In all the community newspapers, several of them supported by DW, there are always stories about service delivery. Issues featured included basic service provision, participatory governance and day to day issue affecting particular communities within the municipalities, such as the INFORSAMBILA, the community newspaper of Sambizanga.
See as an example annex 201305 INFORSAMBILA community newspaper

DW has trained members of local organizations in collecting and analyzing poverty related indicators from their communities so that they can testify on the findings to the MAs, media and service providers. In addition to the indicators collected in the communities DW also provides community organizations with media scan produced on a monthly basis by the DW/CEDOC. See also milestone #9.

The local partner organizations use the information to challenge their local governments during CACS meetings, forums and through the media. The issues that are mostly featured include water and electricity accessibility, basic sanitation, access to work, especially for the youth, gender based and domestic violence, birth certificate registration and crime. Because of the way the poverty network members presented their cases in the radio and TV programmes, they have been sought after to give their opinions on issues related to poverty and community development. TV and Radio stations are again more open to attend meetings organized or promoted by municipal CSOs and the poverty network. DW get regular phone and email requests, even from Bloomberg, to comment on current Angolan affairs.

For more examples of media attention to our work, the program, and the state of affairs in our municipalities see this Word doc.

DW in the media

DW is approached by the media on a regular basis. Sometimes we invite journalists to our activities, sometimes they come to DW staff member for their expert opinions. We have been approached by Bloomberg News Group on several occasions, to ask our opinion on: the land law process and the relocations process in areas such as Boa Vista, Samba, to get our comment on those past relocations. Was the process successfully conducted by the government? There are new relocations taking place in Sambizanga municipality. As a relevant actor of the Angolan civil society, is DW following the new removal of people? If so, how is this one going?

In milestone 9 we have the Angolan Media Scans, many of the articles there will mention DW also.

DW Urban Governance manager Willy Piassa, being interviewed by several journalists on the work DW does together with the Luanda Urban Poverty Network

Another example of DW in the media:
See annex 20130513 ANGOP -DW  Especialista atribui relevância ao Programa Nacional de Urbanismo

Activity/Milestone 7. Launch Luanda Urban Poverty Network (LUPN).
Target month: 6

As reported already last year: The Luanda Urban Poverty Network (LUPN) is officially active. The Poverty Network was formally established in 2009, growing out of an informal network of groups and individuals active since early 2001. It is a membership organisation with a range of varied experience in addressing issues related to poverty and social exclusion. The membership is made up of a wide range of organisations including grassroots community groups, individuals facing poverty, voluntary organisations and statutory organisations in the province of Luanda.

Membership is open to all organizations that share the desire to tackle poverty and social inequalities in Luanda. The current membership of the poverty network include women associations, organizations working on child protection, HIV/AIDS, informal vendors, environmental issues, education, health and water and sanitation.
LUPN is non-party political, and will work with all organisations that support our aims and our values.

The poverty network continues solidifying its membership base at the commune and municipal level whereby various organizations have attended the meetings and events held. The Poverty Network seeks to influence policies at local, provincial and national level that will have an impact on poverty in the musseques and tries to create the conditions for a more socially just Angola. LUPN carries out this work through a range of activities: campaigns, advocacy, networking, project work. Central to the approach is working alongside people experiencing poverty to have their voices heard.

The LUPN has four objectives for the period 2010-2013:

  • To work with people and communities experiencing poverty to empower them to address poverty
  • To work with organisations to build a strong anti-poverty network in Luanda and scale up to other provinces
  • To influence decision makers at the local, provincial and national levels for the development of policies which promote social justice and combat poverty
  • To raise awareness about poverty and encourage debate about solutions.
  • Implement on an annual basis community based social researches in order to carry out an evidence based advocacy.

Despite the economic growth Angola has experienced in the last ten years, the population of the musseques is still living in precarious conditions. The basic forms of poverty manifestations, such as inadequate housing, inadequate sewage and drains, inadequate health and education facilities are almost as visible as they were a decade ago.  Cases of forced eviction and demolition of houses people have built are still happening. Main points of advocacy with municipal, provincial and national governments will therefore be to ensure that people’s right for tenure are respected and the current upgrading and regeneration projects in some musseques is carried out using more human and pro-poor approaches. 

The results of diagnosis and community researches will be the produced in policy briefs that will be published in the Municipal Profiles, the Online Atlases, community newspapers, the DW Friday Debates, the DW website and copies/links are sent to relevant government institutions.

Activity/Milestone 8. Meetings of the LUPN held four times per year.
Target months: quarterly

The LUPN is currently meeting on monthly basis in order to follow the pace of the political and social changing context in which Luanda is going through. In the period being reported the main issues discussed included the slum upgrading process for the municipality of Cazenga and the district of Sambizanga.

The Poverty Network organized several municipal forums in Cazenga to discuss the municipal upgrading program. The Program was presented by the architects from the Provincial Upgrading Office established by the President. The municipal forums are attended by representatives from municipal and communal administrations, churches, local communities, residence commissions and NGOs. Many of the meetings, conferences, forums have already been covered in the report so far.

Activity/Milestone 9. Monthly and annual media scan monitoring review published.
Target months: 14, 26, 38, 50

The CEDOC research department of DW continues to scan all the Angolan media for articles that connect to the work of DW or are about the work of DW. It covers all national, regional, local printed and most online media. It covers state owned, private and community based media.

DW staff at work to prepare the DW Angolan Media Scan

This milestone was to be reached only in year 2, but has been effectively reached since the beginning of the program. The CEDOC Media Scan has been renamed to Angolan Media Scan, and is a very important tool, used widely, to draw attention to current affairs in Angola and serve as a research tool for the general public.

All the Angolan Media Scans can be downloaded from DW's website. Many articles, reports and other sources of information are uploaded to the website. See dw.angonet.org/pt-pt/cedoc.

Every month the newest Angolan Media scan is sent to many stakeholders by email, posted on Facebook, and made available and downloadable on the DW website. A printed version is always available at the project office in Luanda. As the document averages 80 to sometimes more than 200 pages, we do not print versions unless requested.

All the monthly media scans done during the last program year of the Voices of Urban Citizens program have been made. We attach here just one example: see annex 201306 DW Media Scan

DW has decided to focus more on online activities, to invest in upgrading the website, and is very active on Facebook and Twitter.
See www.facebook.com/DWAngolaCEDOC
See www.twitter.com/DWAngola

Objective 3 – To increase sustainable access to potable water through the promotion of community management models to ensure consumer voices are heard
Activity/Milestone 10. Base-line mapping of water services in the project municipalities.
Target months: 8, 18, 30, 55

We have the annual questionnaires information in the DW Database as described already in milestone 1. The questionnaire covers all MDG poverty indicators and collects answers on 11 questions regarding the access to, quality and price of water. See also the information already given in milestone 1. This information is used for the updating of the Municipal Profiles or Atlases and in the field by the WATSAN officers.

In the third year DW has supported a total of 259 stand posts
See annex 20130731 Stand Posts database DW

We are up from 50 at the beginning of the project to 255 in December 2012. We support the increase of government investment in the rehabilitation of the areas Mulemba and construction of stations in Mulevo and New Urbanization in Cacuaco. The record date of the standposts demonstrates the number of stand post in operation.

 8 meetings were held:

At the communal level: on 04/24/2013, 05/31/2013 and 28/06/2013.

At the municipal & communal level: 3 meetings - 05.21.2013 , 24.06.2013 and 19.7.2013.

At the Municipal Level: 08/02/2013 and 12/05/2013.

It is important to mention that in this period, EPAL has built and put into operation several new public stand posts. Although they are not specifically located in the program area, EPAL recognizes and calls for collaboration from the DW WATSAN team to support the program to establish the model of community management in the area.

Our calculations are based on the estimated coverage of services, taking into account that a stand post supplies around 100 families and a family can be estimated at 5 to 7 people. Thus, the actual number is above the target of 80.000. We are estimating reaching approximately 157.000 people within the program area, and many more outside.

DW WATSAN began to introduce the approach of the estimated calculation based on access to services (analyzing different quality indicators). This information is collected and analyzed from the monitoring sheets completed by the janitors at each water point. This set of activities is part of the business plan of the project team.

The project is designed to leverage Government municipal budgets in order to ensure the continued sustainability of infrastructure investments in the peri- urban slums of Luanda. Is that the case?

We believe this is happening. We see the continuation of the implementation process of the distribution of water inside the neighborhoods, in the framework of the Water for All Program, (700,000 household connections to water). The project of household connections is an initiative of the Government of Angola through the company's public waters of Luanda ( EPAL ) and is being implemented by a Chinese company.

Not at the scale it was promised at during the elections (700.000 new connections), but the government has definately increased the investment in the project area. Where EPAL scheduled 51,947  residential connections in Cacuaco district in 2013 , 806 have been made​​. Pedro Viegas, manager of the division of Energy and Water Cacuaco stated on July 26, 2013. Cazenga was provided with 30,000​​, confirms André Gomes, Head of the Agency Cazenga district on 16.08.2013, during a meeting on Monitoring and Balance of Community Management Stand Post Project, sponsored by DW.

One of the bases of the community management model, promoted by the project is cost recovery from users, and communities who take responsibility for ensuring needed small repairs and maintenance are sufficiently funded. This is based on the MOGECA, as explained below.

We found the occurrence of irregularities in the supply of water stand posts in the project area , as well as the existence of a few breaks in the network, leaving streets flooded, impassable and contributing to reduced revenues from the sale of water collected in the stand posts. This fact has caused major traffic jams of cars on the main transit routes, usually frequented by project technicians.

In the MOGECA model of sustainable management it is the responsibility of the associations to repair minor break downs. During the reporting time frame, the associations took the initiative to repair the stand posts: MD508, 510, 511, 512, 514 and MD201, 204 and 205, replacing 10 taps and service 2 distribution stations, in the neighborhoods Bula and Commander Augusto Ngangula. There was also the joint repair (Community Association Living Hope Rising + EPAL) of a rupture in the pipe 110 meters in the neighborhood Augusto Ngangula and delivery of 509 stand post that was managed by the Residents Committee.

DW has observed significant improvement in relations with EPAL, especially with the Division of Stand Posts (with responsibilities within the province of Luanda), a strategic area for the project. This improvement is the result of several workshops held together throughout the period, at the initiative of the program. Thus, it is recommended the project to continue to invest in maintaining this partnership.

The initiative to have regular meetings to exchange experience among different water associations, some more experienced then others, has shown growth of institutional associations, which ensures the sustainability of the processes in the coming years.

DW Facilitator Tome on a training on Community Development with staff of the Communal Administration of Ngola Kiluanje, and the members of the residents committees

We had multiple encounters with the municipal and communal administrations: Apart from the moments referred to in the preceding paragraphs , we had 3 other meetings that were intended to seek institutional support to learn to resolve minor conflicts that emerged in the management of associations involving stand posts built and residents' committees. The activity resulted in engagement and involvement of experts from the municipal administration of Cacuaco and the Communa Hoji - Ya - Henda, in the Cazenga district (Division of Social Services and the Energy and Water). Attendance of 15 men and 12 women.

Three meetings with the beneficiary community: We conducted three meetings extended to the beneficiaries of the project. The meetings were attended by technicians of EPAL, community leaders, including religious leaders, members of neighborhood committees, associations, technical staff from the Municipal and Communal Administrations, having an average of 28 male and 55 female participants. The meetings served to members of community associations to share with the wider community and local leaders their actual experiences related to the operation of the stand posts. The space served for accountability in the management of stand posts.

Through these dynamics undertaken by the project, there is already some remarkable decrease of outbreaks of diseases, both from defecation and garbage, in some sectors of the neighborhood Quarry and Augusto Ngangula. We also noted some improvements in hygiene in the surroundings and technical state of stand posts, mainly due to the existence of fences and roofs (assembled by the project) that motivates the permanent presence of a janitor in each stand post. There were also improvements in financial savings for the citizens, with regard to access to water, promotion of dialogue spaces, increasing the level of democratic communities and closeness between citizens (service providers and local authorities).

Some problems and the solutions

Some Resident Committee members were interfering in the management of stand posts. These interferences were creating a bad environment and conflicts with the ACAs and janitors happened. To deal with the situation, the project held a few meetings with the Committee of Residents of these areas to clarify the logic and structure of the stand post management model established by EPAL based on the MOGECA, which led to mitigation of the conflict.

Throughout the period there were difficulties accessing the project area due to the rains that fell. This happens primarily due to lack of infrastructure and because the roads are damaged and there is no proper drainage system in most of the city. Thus, the secondary and tertiary roads were impassable and we had several flooded neighborhoods, making it difficult to maneuver to closely monitoring technical actions in the field.

A possible problem in some sectors is the dismantling of illegal connections by EPAL. Without giving immediately a legal access point. This has left some associates angered because the suggestions are made in almost all meetings to promote more responsibility on the ground, but then the legal stand posts are not given promptly, creating absenteeism in the participation of members in the monthly meetings.

Persistent irregular supply of water in the area of ​​project implementation has lead to some mistrust. In Hoji - Ya - Henda and Ngola Kiluanje they had very poor water supply for 27 days, leaving citizens very worried. To reverse the situation the project has passed the message to community groups to continue to advocate for better water services along the EPAL and Municipal Administrations.

Lessons learned

The creation of associations of community management of water and sanitation should be well architected and the roles of these ACAs and Residents Committee should be well defined, to avoid situations of jealousy between organizations, especially when the ACAs have formed a very dynamic approach in carrying out their tasks in the communities.

Conducting meetings with the involvement of key stakeholders , including technical Municipal and Communal Administrations, technical EPAL staff, members of Committees of Residents , members of ACAs, as well as some community leaders , has contributed to a greater interaction, increased dialogue, transparency and clarity on the Community Management of Water Systems, reducing outbreaks of some conflicts of interest. It has also created synergies to the complaints and handling of illegal connections to the water distribution network of the stand posts, thus contributing to a more effective supervision.

The ACAs deposit the amounts received from the sale of water stand posts in the bank account of EPAL. That roused the responsible senior EPAL. He commandeered the process of outsourcing of stand post, especially those located in the area of project intervention.

The work will continue as planned.

In the last 3-4 years, the Community Management Model of Water (MOGECA) scheme was implemented in pilot projects;  one component in the peri-urban towns of Luanda (with EPAL) and Huambo (with DPEA), and in the rural areas around Huambo, Huila and Cunene. In the year 2012, the MINEA - Ministry of Energy and Waters officially adopted the Water Management Model MOGECA to be replicated throughout the country. This recognition and achievement are satisfactory, but at the same time is a major challenge to the main actors with responsibilities for its implementation.

The official MOGECA AGUA MANUAL has been printed. The book will be distributed to all provinces and is to be used as the Policy and How-To on community water management systems. It comes with a set of raining cards to be used in the communities. As they use drawings, they can be used at all levels, and being analphabetic is not an issue.  

The official launch will happen in the weeks to follow.

Activity/Milestone 11. Training of stand post committee staff in maintenance and financial management.
Target months: 11,23,35

During the period under review, we planned and implemented several activities: meeting with the Commercial Director and Deputy Head of Division Stand posts of EPAL, to realize plans and strategies drawn to the periphery of the city, conducting training sections (lectures and seminars) for the promotion of community associations on water management; monitoring and reflection on the water supply services meetings for strengthening the institutional partners (EPAL, Municipal and Communal Administrations, ACAs and Residents Committees) conducting independent research on the Operations and Sustainability of Community associations of Water Management, focused on associations operating in the project area.

DW developed a guide for development of municipal plans for water and sanitation. The result continues to be used in the "Training Course for Facilitators for the Preparation of Plans Municipal Water and Sanitation", administered by the DW Watsan team. Participants are members of the administrations, EPAL, Associations and Technical Sectors in Watsan. The manual is a comprehensive 62 page document, that explains the history of water committee development and management. But its main strength is that is serves as a how-to guide for Municipal Water and Sanitation Planning. See annex 201108 DW CB Municipal Water & Sanitation Plan

The DW staff gives trainings on a very regular basis, for example on the right of access to water.
See annex 20130705 PP by Adao Adriano on Direito a Agua

See annex Angolan Law on Water LEI DE AGUAS 639

4 Associations (ACAs) grew institutionally to an acceptable level and have been legalized up to the level of the Ministry of Justice.

Several ACAs have finished their registration processes, and are now recognized and legalized.
See annex 20120907 Registration & legalization of ACA
See annex 20120910 Registration & legalization of ACA

And an example of a registration done in the Diario Da Republica (all established businesses and laws that have been accepted need to be published) and payments made to EPAL and the PoU between DW and EPAL.
See annex 2013 complete legalization process ACA and payment EPAL

We strengthened again the cooperation with EPAL. See minutes of one of the many meetings annex 20130510 DW EPAL Minutes of the meeting

Training and mobilization of Stand Post management groups

Training Seminar for groups on Water and Sanitation in February 2013

Increased knowledge and information to beneficiaries, with the completion of two training seminars directed at community groups for the management of stand posts, with the purpose of increasing the technical capacity and management of associations and caretakers of stand posts.

DW held two seminars, one on Basic Accounting and one on Conflict Resolution. 55 people attended, including 30 women. The 1st seminar focused on the basic accounting and recording of the daily flow water, and the 2nd seminar on Conflict Resolution, training on conflict resolution techniques. With these capacity building activities the program aims to increase the shared capital of the beneficiaries with the aim of ensuring better management of stand posts and conflict resolution in the management of water services.

A seminar on Business Plan Development during 4 days in June 2013

With aim of supporting the associations of community management of stand posts with tools to present a new proposal for the management of the water in their areas of operation to address a new EPAL policy related to outsourcing of local management of water systems.
The seminar covered the following topics:

  • The importance and definitions of a good Business Plan
  • Technical applications of a Business Plan
  • Components of the Business Plan
  • Size and Style of the Business Plan

As a result, two associations took the initiative to develop their plans. 25 people participated in the seminar, including 4 women.

Conducting Lectures during 6 days in May 2013

Through lectures we transmitted knowledge and information about maintenance of household latrines, prevention of waterborne diseases and good hygienic practices and health. The lectures were held in neighborhoods Augusto Ngangula and Quarry. On average we involved 30 men and 35 women. The primary target group was users of the stand posts, patients of health centers, students from public and private schools of the districts covered by the project. The lectures were presented by project technicians and Intern Students from the Institute of Social Education - ICRA, that are doing their internship with DW.

Community Theater during 5 days in May and June

Mobilization and community outreach with Community Theater. The use of theater has become an essential and indispensable tool in community mobilization, especially in changing of awareness regarding hygiene and health. In partnership with the theater group (Nzoji Mwenhu y), the project conducted 15 sessions of Community Theater. The pieces were focused on preventing waterborne diseases, the advantages of fetching water in closed containers and collecting and treating solid waste. We also passed messages on hygiene and health at home and the importance of accountability in the management of stand posts. The pieces were exhibited at the communes Kicolo, neighborhoods Pedreira, Augusto Ngangula and Paradise areas to be known as "endemic" in relation to waterborne diseases. On average, the actions involved 76 women and 47 men.

DW uses theater groups to educate the people living in the areas that depend on public stand posts on the benefits of proper community water management.

Activity/Milestone 12. Best Practice model tested and validated.
A very comprehensive DW study has been done on the performance of the ACA system. A researcher from the University of Nottingham has worked together with the DW team, ACAs, EPAL staff and the citizens living in the target area to do a analysis on the strengths and weaknesses of the ACAs and the implementation of the MOGECA system.

See annex 201302 DW Study on ACAs in Luanda
We have used our Friday debate for a presentation to the wider public on this study.
See annex 20130301 DSF DW presentation Mariana Matoso on ACA performance

This and many other presentations can be found on the DW website.

Development Workshop’s mission envisions the organisation to become a “knowledge-based institution” with the aim of using research and practice to feed the national debate on poverty reduction and to bring advocacy to scale by influencing public policy.

DW’s research team closely monitors and publishes the public media in Angola with the aim of monitoring the Government policies but also public perceptions of these policies.

DW has an on-line library on its website to publish research findings. The Online Cazenga Forum is the newest loot on the DW online presence.

The research results continue to allow DW to feed national policy debates on urban poverty. Research findings have been fed directly to the Government partners of the National Institute for Urban and Territorial Planning and the Ministry Of Urbanism’s Territorial Information System.

DW’s director was invited in September 2011 to join the Minister of Urbanism’s expert advisory group on developing a national urban strategy and the results of the research were presented to that group.

DW has developed training materials for the use of GIS tools by municipal administrations. These tools continue to be used in Huambo to build capacities of five municipalities with an aim of developing their capacities in land mapping, cadastres and land tenure registration

The MOGECA National Policy on Water has been published in is being rolled out as we write.

DW continues, together with Co-Water, the cooperation with DNAAS, funded by the African Development Bank, the work DW is doing on the Voices of Urban Citizens program. The first objective is to assess sector strategy and policy development, and sector planning and program formulation in the rural water and sanitation sector. The  second  objective  is  to  develop  a  realistic  national  rural  water  and  sanitation program (NRWSSP), and to outline sample rural water supply projects to be implemented in the coming years (2012-2016).

  • Assessing the  relevant  water  sector  regulations  and  institutions,  decision-making processes, roles and responsibilities in the sector;
  • Assessing  progress  to  date  in  the  rural  water  sector,  in  terms  of  policy  towards sustainable water supply and sanitation for rural areas;
  • Assessing the interaction between water supply, sanitation and related sectors and sub-sectors;
  • Assessing  national  indicators  of  water  quantity  and  quality  coverage  and  other relevant characteristics (e.g. sanitation, hygiene, etc.); 
  • Assessing the “Water for All” program and identifying lessons learned;
  • Assessing external support and programs;
  • Defining  and  obtaining  consensus  from  DNAAS  on  criteria  for  selection  of  new projects;
  • Identification and selection of new projects with DNAAS;
  • Developing a program  concept  note  (PCN)  including  well-defined  performance indicators and an investment plan.

DW has been working closely with the Water National Directorate from the Ministry of Energy and Water in order to replicate the community management model to other communities across the country. There have already been some significant successes, but there is still a lot to do. One of the biggest difficulties faced here is not directly related to the government’s acceptance of adopting the model but the capacity of providing timely assistance in those communities where water services are being implemented.

The government led “Water for all Project”, for example, is trying to provide for water for nearly 75% of the population by the end of 2012 and most of services will be community related ones, that would require community management model. An attempt here is being made so as to enable Local Administration Training Institute (IFAL) to start delivering courses on water management models.


General Progress:

We believe that the program is doing fine and in general has already achieved some significant successes and is generally on schedule, and on some milestones ahead of schedule. We have a very active Partner Organization base that meets on a very regular basis, to address the issues faces by the urban poor in Luanda. The constraints we face were already anticipated at the beginning of the program. The cooperation with the local and national government bodies has been positive but dealing with Angolan bureaucracy is often slow. Their timelines to respond has obliged us to adjust timeliness on some outputs.

The delay in the local elections is a rather serious strain on the progress. We want to use the buzz around the elections to gain again more speed in the improvement of the cooperation between the citizens and the local administrations and service providers. On the other hand it is clear, in the media and on the streets, that the turn in behavior, actions and reactions will not be stopped anymore. The people know their rights, better and better, and get more vocal in asking for them.

We hope to make some mayor steps soon in the access to and influence on the actual decentralized budgetary planning cycle.

In general we will continue implementing the program as planned. 

Key Milestone Deviation:

We are meeting all milestones.

Course Correction:

At this moment we are not planning any course corrections.

Plans for Next Reporting Period:

Not applicable. We will continue as planned.

We are delayed with our Midterm Review consultant. We plan to work with Andy Rutherford. We have worked with Andy Rutherford before and he has been a great support to us. He is critical, action oriented and able to advise us on course corrections, if needed.


Luanda keeps growing at an almost unsustainable speed.

That leads to an ongoing struggle to provide sufficient services to the population at large. The whole city, rich and poor areas, suffer from very frequent power failures and hampered water provision. Also in the areas where everybody is connected as a paying client to EDEL and EPAL, the service providers, services are bad. We see some improvements, but that is strongly linked to areas. The influx of people, but mainly the natural population growth leads to potential sustainability problems. Research shows that for every child born in Angola, TWO start to live in an urban area.

Most if not all risk were already identified before. Below you find an update on our risk assessment and strategies:

Risk 1: Lack of a serious commitment by the Government and / or abandonment of the promises made in relation to poverty reduction may affect the results of this project.

Situation at moment of reporting: The government is moving in the right direction. Maybe not as fast as desired, or not always with the priorities focused on the poor, but in general the whole country is moving in the right direction. The citizens are more vocal, the President is making field trips to the poorer areas, and those visits have dire career consequences if he is not happy with what he encounters. There is more and more government information available online; the GTRUCS is a very strong example of good participatory work. We always have to realize where this country is coming from.

The radio debates show how spaces have been opened to discuss and monitor urban planning and public policies. The fact that municipal administrations and public service providers continue to attend meetings promoted by civil society is an indication of their willingness to be accountable and get inputs on municipal planning. After all, municipal planning at this point in time is to do with more availability of services for the poor. This is exactly what forums and other meetings are producing.

While the government is realizing the benefits of implementing projects using participatory approaches, there are still some entities who insist in implementing projects without consultation. Most of these projects have been raising people’s expectation but fail to deliver. People expectations at local level have increased so much that the government at all levels are feeling the pressure of having to improve people’s living conditions immediately. This pressure sometimes makes the government to implement projects without giving enough time for consultation. As a result many of these projects are inefficient and do not produce the desired results. 

Unfortunately progress against targets set by the Government rarely gets tracked. We have the plans, but the detailed budgets and the results on these plans are rarely published.Many media stations are heavily controlled by the ruling party. 

Mitigation Strategies: (unchanged) The Voices of Citizens for Urban Change Project will continue to carry out studies and monitoring of progress or lack of policies and programs around the Angolan Government. The results of these studies of monitoring will be shared through the media and CSOs. That will lead to pressure on the government to improve the implementation of the policies. The project team will continue to train MA staff and CSO organizations to improve their capacities.

Risk 2 A: The Government does not provide sufficient funding to local authorities.

This is unfortunately UNCHANGED from last year.
Situation at the moment of reporting:
Although the Angolan Government has provided its policy agenda in the administrative and fiscal decentralization to the level of Municipal Administration (MA), the allocation of roles / functions has not been accompanied by an adequate allocation of financial resources and capable human resources.
MAs have the status of autonomous units in the state budget, but they still have not assumed the full autonomy to control their own resources permitted by law. MAs are in practice still dependent organs of the Provincial Government. The MAs have to send their plans and budgets to request for funds. They do not have access to a sufficient funding every year to fully implement their plans. The Provincial Governador determines the monthly amount of funds available to each municipality.

Mitigation Strategy: Based on the Decree 17/10 on the organization and operation of the MA, the MAs and communities come together in Consultative Municipal Councils (CACS) and other platforms. There are functional councils that the residents can use for discussion and resolution of local problems. The project gives great importance to the networking between civilians and administrators and service providers and promotes public education about its potential through the dissemination of information.

Various meetings promoted by the program involving community leaders, municipal administrations officials and service providers are aimed at infusing a participatory culture in discussing and deciding on priority community basic services. In the last physical year forum meetings, community assemblies and conferences paved the ways for more electricity transformation posts, water stand posts and households connections to be set up in Cazenga, Viana, Sambizanga and Cacuaco.  Municipal administrations in these municipalities have been empowered to present more legitimate priorities of local needs to the central government. 

Risk 2 B: Successive changes of directors and governors of Luanda.

This is happening unfortunately. As the new administrations offices (following the new borders) and the development of the autarquias is not going as fast as planned, it leads to delays and an in-house focus.
This leads to MAs that are busy with the consequences of the change in leadership. As people are still not elected but appointed a new leader could lead to shifts in staff positions. The focus will not be on building capacities of staff of MA. In Angola having personal relations with the stakeholders in any situation is very important.

Mitigation Strategies: (UNCHANGED) The Voices of Citizens for Urban Change Project continues to provide training and capacity building in the field of municipal participatory planning, to enable the creation of an environment of mutual trust and relationship within the CACS.  All trainings and meetings, if appropriate, are given to ‘mixed’ group, MA staff and CSO representatives, so there is always a change for networking. DW invests a lot of time in getting to know all the ‘movers and shakers’ in the Angolan Administrative structures, at all levels.

Risk 3: The government sometimes accuses civil society organizations to be spokesmen of political opposition and introduce restrictions on their activities.

This risk remained and increased somewhat for some CSOs, especially those who advocate aggressively on human rights, land tenure and asymmetries in the distribution of income in the country and corruption.
Some NGOs and CSO have criticized individual government leaders personally expounding political party positions. Public space tends to close for these organizations. The CSOs in the CACS are not fully able to expose their views freely. It is supposed to be a very democratic space, but there is room for improvement.

Mitigation Strategies: The Voices of Citizens for Urban Change Project will continue to work with the Institute for Local Administration Training (IFAL) to train the government and CSOs on how to best use the CACS as spaces to promote a constructive dialogue between governments and CSOs.

Risk 4: Leadership challenges within civil society. (UNCHANGED)
I) Reduced space for CSOs in the public sector, due to stricter legal control by the government of CSOs.
II) Drastic reduction of donor funds to Angola.
III) Strong staff members of NGOs move to the public or private sector, as NGOs are struggling to compete with salaries offered.

Mitigation Strategies: The Voices of Citizens for Urban Change Project continues to invest in the promotion of relevant training workshops for CSOs, forums and CACS to promote participatory and democratic elections of representatives to public spaces, inclusive and participatory municipal planning and leadership activities in CSOs and MAs.

Risk 5: Changes in the borders of MA lead to delays and unclear structures. See also risk 2B

Luanda has changed the municipal borders but new administrative systems are not all made and active yet.
Plans will be submitted later, and plans in process will cover old boundaries.

Mitigation Strategy: Our principal institutional counterparts in the MA and Central Government appear to still be in place at the time of reporting. Our CSO focus strategically focuses on working with bairro and communal level community based organizations who will still be active and vital even if municipal boundaries are re-configured. We will therefore keep our ongoing work focused on the bairros, irrespective of which municipality they belonged to or are becoming a part of at a future point.

Risk 6: Municipal Elections were expected in late 2013

No date has been set, but we expect them only in 2014. This could influence the speed of the MA development of Plans and Budget. And this could lead to the rapid building of water points without proper management and maintenance structures developed. Water points are a very visible and important improvement in most areas. But without proper management of the water points, that will lead to water points that will function only for a short time, if at all.

The DW MOGECA management model is based on participation of all stakeholders. In a highly politicized society, under the pressure of upcoming elections we have to be aware of and vigilant of the neutrality of DW.

Mitigation Strategy: Make sure DW keeps her independent image, and promotes civic education and the importance of proper water management systems.

While there are some expected challenges requiring re-adapting the approach to engage with the new governance structures at the municipal and provincial levels, the project does not foresee any major changes in its operation.


The Voices of Citizens for Urban Change (VCUC) Program is part of and scaling up of a long-term cooperation between DW, many Angolan and international CSOs and NGOs, and the Angolan Government at all levels, national, provincial, municipal and communal.

DW is able to execute the Voices of Citizens for Urban Change program, because of the long standing cooperation between DW and all the other stakeholders. We have supported the development of ACAs we in the past that have been operational for many years without further operational of financial support from DW. We have long term cooperation with EPAL, IFAL, several ministries and other government bodies. And of course with our CSO and NGO partners in Angola and more and more abroad.

One of the aims of the program is to facilitate and support the growing cooperation between all stakeholders in the improvement of the living conditions in Angola, and in the case of this program, in Luanda. We disseminate our knowledge and information throughout the country and share information with, and learn from (inter)national partners as often as we can. This is one of the main tasks of Allan Cain, supported by Cupi Baptista and Willy Piassa. They often join (inter)national conferences and workshops to strengthen the cooperation with other organizations.

With the ever faster developing online community and growing attention for our Friday debates (especially online) and the online availability of our work, training manuals, opinions, research results we embed our work even further in the Angolan society.

DW staff members are part of many national and international workgroups and steering committees. We expect a lot from the Online Atlas and the forum it supports. It is a massive step to bringing pro-poor, transparent and inclusive planning and improving living standards a lot closer again.

As the Angolan government is keen on continuing the cooperation with the CSOs and NGOs (including DW) we expect the continuous development of this cooperation to continue after the grant period has ended.


We aim to increase the influence of the citizens on the development of their bairros, comunas and municipalities. And that work is not restricted to the 4 municipalities of the Voices of Citizens for Urban Change program. Our work spreads throughout the whole city, and where possible also outside Luanda and through the National Urban Forum and the Annual Civil Society Conferences the lessons learned from the program are shared and replicated at a national level.  Due to the visibility of DW in Angola, we often get invited to share our work and our research in other parts of the country, and abroad.

And of course our increased cooperation with the Cities Alliance, Slum Dweller International, POLIS and INESC, The Africa China Initiative, our work related to other networks and donors, it is all linked to each other.

Development Workshop is developing a partnership with the African Centre for Cities (ACC) based at the University of Cape Town. The DW Director is serving as a Board Member involved in the State of African Cities Project. The ACC wishes to extend the scope of their program to include Luanda, which is now recognized as Africa’s fastest growing city.  In partnership with our project and the Cities Alliance we are exploring the expansion of our participatory urban indicator monitoring work to other municipalities and sharing the lessons with other cities within the African region.

The Africa-China Workshop on Pro-Poor Urban Development Exchange, which DW has initiated in partnership with the Centre for African Studies at Peking University and support from BMGF, has great potential for significant impact on a large scale. The largest and most important investments in urban Africa today and for the foreseeable future are Chinese. The initiative aims to influence the direction of this financing and promote good practice so that these investments will positively promote pro-poor development.
Lessons Learned:

We are very aware of the importance of working with and partnering with the key people in the strategic institutions. Building their capacities remains one of the biggest challenges. Staff retaining is a big risk and burden for all non-oil employers. We just can’t afford those salaries.

We continue to develop functional working relations with all stakeholders in this program. Especially the continuous changes in the Municipal Administration staff, that already have a rather high staff turnover and now following the municipal restructuring due to the establishment of the new municipal borders, leads to some extend to extra work, but that has to be accepted. Training of all stakeholders at all levels remains vital to the program.

The sharing of all available information in an action oriented format is crucial. Doing research and sharing the outcome leads to better knowledge and decisions. We should have focused more and earlier on the power of online availability of our information. The enthusiasm about the online atlas and all the other topics we now routinely upload, makes us realize we should have done that years ago…

That helps the program to come to results that all will benefit from. The population because their needs are met, the municipal administrations because they improve their capacities and strength to influence the situation in their municipalities. It is not a lack of will to improve the lives of the poor, but sometimes the problems, needs and demands are so overwhelming and complex they lead to in-action or fear to take decisions. The Program supports all stakeholders to keep moving in the right direction.

Lessons Learned:

We are very aware of the importance of working with and partnering with the key people in the strategic institutions. Building their capacities remains one of the biggest challenges. Staff retaining is a big risk and burden for all non-oil employers. We just can’t afford those salaries.

We continue to develop functional working relations with all stakeholders in this program. Especially the continuous changes in the Municipal Administration staff, that already have a rather high staff turnover and now following the municipal restructuring due to the establishment of the new municipal borders, leads to some extend to extra work, but that has to be accepted. Training of all stakeholders at all levels remains vital to the program.

The sharing of all available information in an action oriented format is crucial. Doing research and sharing the outcome leads to better knowledge and decisions. We should have focused more and earlier on the power of online availability of our information. The enthusiasm about the online atlas and all the other topics we now routinely upload, makes us realize we should have done that years ago….

That helps the program to come to results that all will benefit from. The population because their needs are met, the municipal administrations because they improve their capacities and strength to influence the situation in their municipalities. It is not a lack of will to improve the lives of the poor, but sometimes the problems, needs and demands are so overwhelming and complex they lead to in-action or fear to take decisions. The Program supports all stakeholders to keep moving in the right direction.