The market of Roque Santeiro emerged as an important centre of the informal economy in Luanda in the 1980s as the government encouraged people who had begun to sell on street corners to move to what was, before 1985, a piece of waste ground and informal rubbish tip. Even then, though the government was not in favour of the growth of the informal economy it was unable to prevent it and felt that it could only move it to what was then a marginal location. In the late 1980s and 1990s Roque Santeiro was the largest market in the city (and possibly the largest open-air market in Africa) serving as the main distribution point for other markets as well as selling directly to the public: goods from other areas of Angola and goods imported through the port (a short distance away) were traded in bulk at Roque Santeiro and then traded in smaller quantities in other areas of the market or in other locations.
The informal trading economy in Luanda continued to grow in the decade after the achievement of peace in Angola. The main underlying factor that contributes to the continued importance of the informal trading economy is the shortage of formal employment, which leads to large numbers of people creating their own economic activities in ways that require only small amounts of capital and low levels of skill.
Roque Santeiro was closed in 2010. Many day and casual labourers have lost their livelihoods, a scenario which may have contributed to increased levels of crime and delinquency in Luanda. The market had been a huge source of employment within the city, and its transfer meant a loss of employment for stevedores and ambulant sellers who earned a daily livings there and local house owners who provided overnight temporary warehousing of merchandise.
The Government however has renewed its determined effort to stamp out informal trading in early 2014 by announcing a heavy regime of fines, not only on informal traders, but on their customers as well. The image of the informal trader is seen as an affront to those who wish to promote the vision of Luanda as a world-class modern city, despite the fact that these informal markets still provide essential services and employment to much of the urban population.
The 2015 CSO Sustainability Index For Sub-Saharan Africa
USAID is pleased to present the seventh edition of the CSO Sustainability Index (CSOSI) for Sub-Saharan Africa. The index describes advances and setbacks in seven key dimensions of sustainability in the civil society sector in 2015—the legal environment, organizational capacity, financial viability, advocacy, service provision, infrastructure, and public image. The reports are produced by an expert panel of CSO practitioners and researchers in each country included in this year’s index. The panels assess each dimension of CSO sustainability according to key indicators and
agree on a score, which can range from 1 (most developed) to 7 (most challenged). The scores for each dimension are averaged to produce an overall sustainability score for a given country’s CSO sector. An editorial committee composed of technical and regional experts then reviews the scores and corresponding narratives with an eye to ensuring consistent approaches and standards to allow for cross-country comparisons. The scores are grouped into three overarching categories—Sustainability Enhanced (scores from 1 to 3), Sustainability Evolving (3.1-5), and Sustainability Impeded (5.1-7)—which provide additional comparative benchmarks. Further details about the methodology used to calculate scores and produce corresponding narrative reports are provided in Annex A. The index is a useful source of information for CSOs, governments, donors, academics, and others who want to better understand and monitor key aspects of CSO sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa. It complements similar indices covering countries in Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia, the Middle East and North Africa, Asia, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. A publication of this type would not be possible without the contributions of many individuals and organizations. We are particularly grateful to the Aga Khan Foundation, which supported the assessments of Kenya and Mali (as well as the indices for Afghanistan and Pakistan) and our implementing partners in each country, who facilitate the expert panel meetings and write the country reports. We also thank the many CSO representatives and experts, USAID partners, and international donors who participated in the expert panels in each country. Their knowledge, perceptions, ideas, and dedication are the foundation upon which this index is based.
Rent Strike narrowly averted in Kilamba City - DW Angola - Published version
The Kilamba project became the show-piece of Angola’s Housing and Urban Development Program announced by the President in 2008. With US$ 3.5 billion financing from the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, purportedly backed by oil-revenues, the project was built in a record 18 months by CITIC a major Chinese consortium and completed in 2012. The Kilamba City project, includes 750 apartment buildings, schools, and more than 100 retail units. The new city was built to accommodate 160,000 people in 20,000 flats, each with a floor area of between 110 and 150 m2 and costing from US$120,000 to US$200,000. SONIP Housing had been created in 2013 as a real-estate arm of the Angolan state petroleum company SONANGOL. It was given the mandate to commercialize, manage and distribute 33,255 housing units of which 20,000 of them were in the recently completed Kilamba City. Kilamba has gained fame as being the largest Chinese built housing complex in Africa and the show-case of Angola’s post-war National Urban Housing Program. During the first year of SONIP’s management of Kilamba, it only distributed 12,425 units and acquired a substantial waiting list of impatient aspirant clients. Smaller, most affordable, three bedroom T3 units were in great demand but the larger expensive five-bedroom
units remained empty. By September 2013 the three and four bedroom units were exhausted2, and clients reluctantly accepted the larger units, but often expressed concerns about their capacity to make the payments of US$ 12,000 per year.
Alternatives to African Commodity-backed Urbanisation: the Case of China in Angola
"Alternatives to African Commodity-backed Urbanisation: the Case of China in Angola", a paper presented by DW director Allan Cain at the Annual World Bank Conference Conference on Africa (ABCA 2016): Managing the Challenges and Opportunities of Urbanization in Africa, at Oxford University, June 13 to 14, 2016.
In the Habitat Agenda adopted in 1996, heads of state and governments committed themselves to two main goals, i.e., “Adequate Shelter for All” and “Sustainable Human Settlements in an Urbanizing World”, and to implement a plan of action based on these goals. In the Millennium Declaration, heads of state and governments committed themselves to improve the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020. They also committed themselves to halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without adequate sustainable access to drinking water and basic sanitation.
O Relatório Nacional de Angola para o Habitat III tem como referência os anos de 1996 (Aprovação da Agenda Habitat II em Istambul), 2002 (Alcance da paz efectiva em Angola) e 2008 (Lançamento do Programa Nacional do Urbanismo e Habitação), para monitorar os progressos alcançados pelo país no cumprimento das metas estabelecidas na Agenda Habitat II.
Fantasias urbanas em Africa: Lecciones del pasado y realidades emergentes”, Medio Ambiente y Urbanizacion no. 82, Buenos Aires
El artículo describe cómo el gobierno de Angola ha sido capaz de utilizar la financiación de líneas de crédito de China para construir proyectos de vivienda urbana de prestigio como los gobiernos busca hacer sus ciudades "clase mundial". En este trabajo se analiza el apoyo del Gobierno de Angola para la ciudad de Kilamba desarrollado público-privada con 20.000 apartamentos. Los apartamentos eran inicialmente demasiado caro para la mayoría de la población, y el Estado ha tenido que sacar más fondos de su presupuesto de vivienda para un esquema de subsidio de alquiler con opción a compra para hacer las unidades asequibles para los funcionarios públicos de nivel medio. El autor sostiene que la oportunidad se está perdiendo de utilizar los ingresos de hoy a partir de recursos naturales de alto precio y la corriente de fácil acceso a las líneas de crédito de China y los conocimientos técnicos para hacer frente a los grandes atrasos en el mejoramiento urbano de la infraestructura de servicios básicos y la vivienda para los pobres. En el documento también se refleja en un período posterior a la independencia anterior cuando se construyeron una serie de nuevas ciudades africanas, dejando a algunos países con décadas de la deuda y el desarrollo estancado. ¿Puede errores de los últimos ofrecen lecciones para el futuro desarrollo urbano de África?
Climate Change and Land Markets in Coastal Cities of Angola
The coastal areas of Angola where urban populations are growing most rapidly experience lower rainfall than inland areas and are subject to sudden storms and high annual variation. In urban coastal areas poorer communities of formerly war displaced have purchased and settled on land that is often at risk from flooding and erosion because these are the only affordable locations near to economic opportunities. There has been serious flooding in Angolan cities in recent years. There is a lack of urban land-use and disaster planning capacity to deal with these issues, though institutions have been created in the last five years. Limited information is available on the vulnerability of these coastal cities, on rainfall variability and trends, on river flows and on areas at risk (now and in the future). Similarly limited demographic and socio-economic information is available.
Climate-adaptive planning for Angola’s coastal cities
In the coastal cities of Angola, the intensity and variability of climatic events such as rainstorms and floods have more than doubled over the last 60 years. For much of that period, conflict in the interior provinces was driving people to the relative safety of coastal cities – namely Cabinda, Luanda and the twin cities of Benguela/Lobito – where most settled in marginal and environmentally fragile land at the urban periphery. The growth of these settlements has resulted in the occupation of high risk, low cost land in river basins and swampy coastal locations. Cholera, malaria and other diseases are increasingly serious problems, linked to a lack of safe water and adequate sanitation. Increasing climate variability has compounded those problems, with rainfall tending to come in intense storms, causing flooding. Following floods in 2006, Luanda suffered a cholera epidemic with 35,000 cases reported.
Conflict & Collaboration for Water in Angola's Post-War Cities
This chapter in Post-Conflict Natural Resource Water Management begins by outlining the structure of water services in Angola after more than forty years of conflict and then, focusing on Luanda in particular, discusses the importance of the informal water market, the main water provider for most of the urban poor. Based on the knowledge gathered by the Development Workshop, the chapter examines Luanda’s peri-urban water value chain and uses value chain analysis to assess Luanda’s water economy. Several factors affecting success in promoting post-conflict access to water are highlighted, including the need for cooperation with informal water service providers, addressing unresolved issues with those providers, and the importance of social capital in the informal water sector. The chapter examines key elements of community-based water management, particularly robust and low-cost technology, sustainability strategies, and water committees and associations, and concludes with recommendations for national post-war strategies.
African urban fantasies: past lessons and emerging realities
"African urban fantasies: past lessons and emerging realities" describes how the government of Angola has been able to use financing from Chinese credit facilities to build prestige urban housing projects. This paper responds to Vanessa Watson’s article on the ambitious urban development plans that are increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa as governments seek to make their cities “world class”. ClickHEREto read Vanessa Watson's paper titled "African urban fantasies: dreams or nightmares?" This paper - "African urban fantasies: past lessons and emerging realities" - discusses the Angolan Government support for the public-privately developed Kilamba city with 20,000 apartments. The apartments were initially too expensive for most of the population, and the state has had to draw further funds from its housing budget for a subsidized rent-to-purchase scheme to make the units affordable for middle-level civil servants. The author argues that an opportunity is being missed to use today’s income from high-priced natural resources and the current easy access to Chinese credit lines and technical expertise to address the very large backlogs in urban upgrading of basic service infrastructure and housing for the poor. The paper also reflects on a previous post-independence period when a number of African new cities were built, leaving some countries with decades of debt and stagnant development. Can errors from the past offer lessons for future African urban development?
Angola Housing Finance Chapter: 2013 Africa Housing Finance Yearbook
Development Workshop prepared the Angola Housing Finance Chapter for the 2013 Africa Housing Finance Yearbook, published by the Centre for Affordable Housing Finance in Africa. This is the fourth edition of the Housing Finance in Africa Yearbook and reflects the mood and temperature of housing finance markets on the African continent in 2013.
Regresso A Uma Vida Melhor: A integração dos ex-refugiados angolanos após o seu regresso a Angola
O estudo sobre a migração para Angola foi elaborado pela unidade de pesquisa da Development Workshop, liderada por Andre Melo. Documento preparado por André Joaquim Melo, Development Workshop Angola. Esta publicação foi produzida com a assistência financeira da União Europeia. O conteúdo desta publicação é da inteira responsabilidade do autor e não pode em caso algum ser considerado como reflectindo a posição do Secretariado do Grupo dos Estados de África, Caraíbas e Pacífico (ACP), da União Europeia, da Organização Internacional para as Migrações (OIM) e dos outros membros do consórcio do Observatório ACP das Migrações, do UNFPA ou da Confederação Suíça.
O Observatório ACP das Migrações é uma iniciativa do Secretariado do Grupo dos Estados da África, das Caraíbas e do Pacífico (ACP), financiada pela União Europeia, implementada pela Organização Internacional para as Migrações (OIM) num consórcio com 15 parceiros e com o apoio financeiro da Suíça, da OIM, do Fundo da OIM para o Desenvolvimento e do UNFPA. Fundado em 2010, o Observatório ACP é uma instituição concebida para produzir dados relativos à migração Sul-Sul no Grupo dos Estados ACP para migrantes, para a sociedade civil e para os decisores políticos, bem como para aperfeiçoar as capacidades de investigação nos países ACP para a melhoria da situação dos migrantes e o fortalecimento da relação migração-desenvolvimento.
Humabo Land Readjustment: Urban Legal Case Studies
The monograph published by UN Habitat features case studies on two Development Workshop projects on land readjustment in Huambo, Angola. The monograph provides an opportunity to learn about the potential, and the challenges, of land readjustment in an African city. The cases yield information about managing land readjustment in the absence of formal legislation on land readjustment and in the context of what was, at the time of writing the report, a change in local governance structures following a decree on decentralization. The case studies also give some interesting insights into the possible mechanisms for engaging communities and the conditions necessary to do so effectively.
The case study demonstrates the gaining administrative recognition for local land management practices. The growing land market in Huambo City, along with weak and unenforceable land legislation, fostered the development of local practices in land management, often incorporating customary practices, like the traditional chief (soba) witnessing and the neighborhood bairro-level representatives approving transactions. The majority of urban residents purchased or acquired their land through some locally legitimate mechanism and most have documents to prove it. In response, the municipal authorities chose to recognise these mechanisms, thereby acknowledging and working with existing and management practices.
This publication reflects on promising practices that have emerged through the work of the Tenure Security Facility Southern Africa (TSFSA), funded by the Cities Alliance and UKaid. and which signal new approaches to securing tenure in informal settlements. It is intended to provide guidance to practitioners, officials and communities who are involved in informal settlement upgrading and who see the value of finding more routes into tenure security than the dominance of an ownership paradigm currently allows.
The project operated in six sites in Southern Africa with different partners: • Angola: Development Workshop, an NGO based in Luanda • Mozambique: Associação Nacional dos Municípios de Moçambique (ANAMM) (the national association of municipalities) and the Cities Alliance Country Programme • eMalahleni, South Africa: Planact, an NGO working with the Springvalley community • Cape Town, South Africa: Sun Development Services, an NGO that has been providing development support in Monwabisi Park • Johannesburg, South Africa: Urban LandMark has provided support over several years to the city’s Regularisation programme • Malawi: CCODE, an NGO based in Lilongwe that works to improve the quality of life of the poor.
Published in Land & Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, Vol. 2-014. Environmental Law Institute & UN Environment Program - Earthscan, New York 2013. Since the end of the armed conflict in 2002, Angola’s recovery and remarkable economic growth have been fuelled by the extractive industries of petroleum and diamonds. The consolidation of peace, however—the reintegration of politically divided populations and excombatants—is much more linked to access to land. Land is not the only resource important to peacebuilding in post-conflict Angola, but it is a primary factor in social reconstruction.
The postwar period in Angola provides an opportunity to resolve long-standing problems that, if left untended, may result in renewed conflict in the future. Angola’s legacy of conflict, which was partly fuelled by injustice related to land appropriation by the governing elites (both exogenous and indigenous), must still be addressed. Successive revisions of land legislation have not fundamentally addressed the underlying problems that originally led to conflict.
Participatory Inclusive Land Readjustment in Huambo, Angola
Development Workshop's director Allan Cain presented this paper at the Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty on April 9, 2013 in Washington DC. The authors argues that despite a rather challenging environment, land readjustment in Angola has the potential to become an important tool for urban planning.
Teaching case study: Angola and informal land tenure arrangements
This teaching case study draws on research that investigated the extensive informal land market in Luanda, Angola. It examines how urban land is transacted and the mechanisms by which it is secured and regulated. It recognises the intense pressure on urban land experienced as a result of urban in- migration during and since the civil war. It shows the inability of the formal market to provide means for poorer people to access land, transact it and secure formal title or legally defensible land tenure. The case study is based on research undertaken by Development Workshop, Angola. The work was commissioned by the World Bank, with technical support from Urban LandMark.
Luanda’s Post-War Land Markets: Reducing Poverty by Promoting Inclusion
Published in Urban Forum (2013) 24:11–31. This paper presents the results of work on property markets in Luanda that permit a better understanding of the nature and economic value of land and identify the problems and potentials the market has to offer. The paper argues for a major reform in public land policy, recognising the legitimacy of common practices in land acquisition and long-term occupation in good faith. Inclusive land management, adapting to both formal and existing informal markets, can contribute to the improvement of urban settlement conditions and economic wellbeing of the poor in post-war Luanda.
Research and Practice as Advocacy Tools to Influence Angola’s Land Policies
Published in Environment & Urbanization, Volume 22, Number 2. This paper discusses how research on urban land promoted the need to formalize the poor’s informal occupation rights as the government developed a new land policy. The research looked at both formal and informal mechanisms to access land by poor and war-affected populations and at the institutions that influence this. Its findings helped persuade the government of the need for consultation, and promoted more awareness of how upgrading and basic service provision could improve land tenure.
Water Service Provision for the Peri-Urban Poor in Post-Conflict Angola
This paper shows how Development Workshop has managed to scale up water supply and sanitation initiatives. It has done so by engaging strategically with the communities, Angolan Government, the national Water Directorate, UNICEF, the European Union and other actors in the sector. DW is one of the Angolan Government’s key implementing partners on their urban community based water programme which aims to institutionalise the concept of community management and the accountability of service providers to the consumers.
Published in Reports on Foreign Aid & Development, Number 125. This report explores both the formal and customary laws that affect women’s property rights, examines issues of widowhood, divorce, polygamy and girl’s inheritance and provides recommendations for strengthening women’s rights to land.
Strenghtening Land Tenure and Property Rights in Angola: Benchmarking Survey for Pilot Sites
This survey was carried out by Development Workshop for the USAID Angola’s Land Tenure Strengthening Project which is managed by ARD with implementation assistance from its partners, Development Workshop (DW) and the Rural Development Institute (RDI). The project continues USAID-Angola’s support to land reform and land rights strengthening begun in 2004 as part of its assistance to the Government of Angola.
Concessao e Regularizaca de Terras em areas Peri-Urbanas
O presente guia, elaborado e apresentado pelo Governo de Angola, através do Ministério do Urbanismo e Ambiente, com apoio metodológico da DW, é parte dos esforços do Governo e pretende lidar com a falta generalizada de informação, sobretudo entre a população peri-urbanas que possui terras (ocupadas de boa fé) sem nenhum titulo de ocupação emitido pelas autoridades municipais ou provinciais.
Livelihoods and the Informal Economy in Post-War Angola
Published in the Institute for Security Studies. Ex-combatants left their areas of origin on average 14 years before the ceasefire, and generally began to return in the 18 months following its signature. Development Workshop has tracked the process of reintegration of ex-combatants into rural Huambo and followed their problems of access to land. These studies aim to evalu- ate the actual needs and potential problems that ex-combatants encounter.
Basic Service Provision for the Urban Poor - The Experience of DW in Angola
This is one ten case studies that were part of an International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) research programm on "Urban Poverty Reduction Programmes: Lessons of Experience". This paper describes the water and sanitation programmes that the NGO Development Workshop has developed in Luanda over the last 15 years, working with community organizations, local government and the official water and sanitation agencies.
Humanitarian & Development Actors in Angola as Peacebuilders?
Published in the Review of African Political Economy (ROAPE), Number 90, Volume 28. The article argues that despite ample justification for donor fatigue, the international community has, in fact, stayed engaged in Angola during the last decade. Investment in humanitarian and development/rehabilitation programming can be understood as a donor strategy for influencing regional stability and building peace. The war raises risks for the major powers who have progressively increased their stake in the lucrative Angolan petroleum economy.