DW AngolaModule 3: Urban Growth & Infrastructure - Ten Participants

Module 3: Urban Growth & Infrastructure - Ten Participants


Etelvina Saldanha - 12:32 AM
Urban Growth & Infrastructure

Hello everyone, in this sector, the destruction caused by the war in Angola reached almost all the heavy vehicle fleet, 80% of the park by rail and 20% of the park aircraft. Most roads became inoperative, and approximately 2800 kilometers of railway line only 12% remained in good condition (currently being under the recovery program Angoferro).
 Thus, the Government has developed a National Strategy for Transport in Angola for the period 2000-2015, which includes, among other measures, the construction of an integrated transport network and its integration into SADC and also the introduction of figures public-private partnerships or privatization, for reimbursement of the private sector in infrastructure managed by the state.
 The intention is to revive and modernize the transport system in Angola, in terms of new infrastructure (including terminals and dry ports), operations, regulation and institutions, so that it can serve as a lever to expand economic activities and ensure sustainable development across the country, as part of national reconstruction. In 1994, this road network consisted of 8000 km and 7870 km of paved gravel roads, which equalled a network of 75 000 km of roads. This total of 16,000 km of road is managed by the Angolan National Roads Institute (INEA). 
These roads are vital for linking Luanda to other provincial capitals and access to ports and borders, which is essential to economic dynamism.

Railway System: 
The Angolan railway system consists of lines that cross the t's parents in east-west direction, and whose length is about 2750 km.
The core network is the Benguela (1305 km)2. 
(Being one of the most important railway lines in southern Africa, linking the plateau lands of Angola, Huambo and Zaire landlocked Zambia and rode through the Democratic Republic of Congo) with the port of Lobito. 
The other lines are the Moçamedes (907 km), linking the port of Namibe and Menongue that, when restored, will allow for transport of goods and people more efficiently between the port-city of Namibia to southern Angola and the Northern Namibia.
 The line Luanda-Malanje, also known as line Luanda, has an extension of 538 km3 and when rebuilt will connect to Luanda, agricultural zone, by excellence of Angola (the valleys of kassange and Kwanza), and the diamond fields.

Ports System
: Angola has three major ports, which makes a connection point to the rest of Southern Africa.
The three existing railway lines are the links to these three ports:
Luanda. Lobito and Namibe. In suits tonnage, there is another important port, the oil terminal Malongo. Cabinda.
 Aerial system transposed
. Angola has a national airline, TAAG - Angola Airlines has flights to domestic and international. In Luanda airport there are flights to destinations in Africa, Europe, South America, in the Caribbean. 
The Luanda airport also has flights to other airlines like TAP, Air France, SAA, Aeroflot, and others. 
Airport of Luanda was quoted between 30 busiest airports in the world, with an increase of 81.9% of its cargo volume from 1995 to 19962. 
Given the situation experienced in Hong Kong, China where some steps were:
trebled the annual license fee for cars, doubled the first registration fee (to 70% -90% of the import price of the vehicle) and doubled fuel taxes. Private and public vehicle ownership fell quickly. In 1985, the share of private cars registered in cars had fallen to 50%, 10% of them taxis.

I would add a few more measures could be effective in reducing transit system in my city, who also suffers from the problem of transportation bottlenecks:
- Schedule the repair works of roads for the period of the night and not duringthe day.
- Increase the tax car and trucks.

- Coordination of traffic signals for an order not to accumulate too many cars.
- Transportation underground and surface metro etc. 

- Car parks outside urban centers.

- Restrict the movement of heavy vehicles for periods at night, since they arethe heights of less traffic flow

- Incentive programs for people riding public transport instead of private transport.

Soumya Dharmavaram - Tuesday, 25 September 2012, 07:19 PM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

I understand that following the destruction caused by war, transportation linkages between cities is very important. Could you tell us more about the transportation system in Luanda itself?

Allan Cain - Tuesday, 25 September 2012, 07:32 PM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

Dear Soumya & colleagues,
I wanted to return to some of those issues that relate particularly to post conflict cities like Luanda, Kabul and several others. We have the situation of major population growth over extended periods of time during the war, that resulted in increasing densities due to families from rural areas seeking the relative safe havens in the poor districts in the centres of cities. We have seen population growth without corresponding infrastructural and transport development. In fact increasing numbers of people will put demands on the same old infrastructure. With the end of the war, we suddenly get pressure for a geographical extension of the city when the hinterland becomes safer. This urban expansion can be very rapid and likely beyond the capacity of urban planners and administrators of land to control. Rapid growth of peripheral slums seems to be characteristic of the post-conflict period.

It is important for urban planners and managers to anticipate these demographic shifts and corresponding pressures on land use in order to develop policies to guide this settlement pressure during and after conflicts. The tools presented in this course will be very useful but the planning horizons may have to be adjusted to accommodate for the very rapid changes that we can anticipate.

Soumya Dharmavaram - Tuesday, 25 September 2012, 08:57 PM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

Thanks, Allan. What is the transportation system in Luanda? How is coping with rapid population growth coupled with rapid urban expansion? In the face of very rapid growth and planning uncertainty, what would be key/skeletal land use measures that can keep pace with transportation demand in Luanda?

Allan Cain - Tuesday, 25 September 2012, 09:22 PM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

 Dear Soumya,
I have addressed these issues about transportation growth in Luanda in my 3rd assignment paper. I am attaching it here without the graphics:

Luanda’s first post independence structural plan was developed in 1998. It was largely based on the concept of ring roads in an attempt to break down the traditional colonial “radial” pattern that was dominated by three transport corridors that radiated out from the traditional port area of the old city of Luanda. The ring road served to draw populations out to the periphery of the city and has resulted in new urban growth on both sides and encouraged a significant geographical expansion of the city. Luanda has become one of Africa’s fastest growing cities in the last two decades with an annual population growth of between 5-6%. The physical growth of the city has been even faster, more than doubling in size in the last 15 years.

It is forecast that Luanda will continue to grow at about 4.5% annually. With raising land prices in the CBD and new investment center of Talatona inner city slum areas are also experiencing raising land values. Inner city slum areas are slowly being gentrified and the poor have begun to migrate away from the inner city to find cheaper land in the periphery.

In preparing Luanda’s next CIP, we must consider the existing city’s transport and service structure laid down in colonial tines and also the positive and negative influences of the 1998 structure plan. The colonial radial road pattern has lead to the concentration of investment in the CBD where land prices have increased dramatically. The CIP that we envision will promote a multi-nodal development of Luanda. The ring road development of the last plan has resulted in a leap-frogging of development and the opportunity to plan new urban development nodes in the peri-urban areas. Three new development centres are emerging. The previous fishing village of Cacuaco, north-east of Luanda falls within the ring road and has become a major residential area with some future potential for the development of sea-side amenities. The second node to the east is now linked by the new ring road is called Viana. It had been planned as an industrial satellite town but now has become part of metropolitan Luanda. The third new node is in the south of the city centre at Kilamba Kiaxi where Chinese investment has been employed to build a dormitory community, a new university campus and an Olympic-scale sports complex.

While the new multi-nodal urban development strategy may help take the pressure off of Luanda’s old congested CBD an appropriate “transport-oriented” development strategy has still to be implemented. The third new node remains isolated and connected only by the new ring-road. It was built on the urban fringe for convenience and ease of land acquisition. However, there is no arterial transport link to the city centre where the majority of people still work. The sports educational facilities remain weakly connected and transport times for commuters average at about 2 hours per journey (well above the maximum recommended 40 minutes). The reliance on auto-centric road-based transport has lead to increased congestion where the commercial rate of traffic movement in the CBD averages only 5 km per hour and an almost complete lack of parking which remains free for those who can find a space.

Increasing land prices have resulted in public open spaces and parks being appropriated for new high-rise buildings. Water courses and drainage channels which are dry except for the rainy season are clogged with rubbish, preventing run-off and provoking serious flooding every year. The proposed CIP envisions the development of a “wedge-based” greening strategy that will incorporate a multi-functional land use, supporting a rapid-transit (rail system), intermittent storm water drainage (preventing seasonal floods), providing parklands for recreation as well as erosion control and water absorption/retention through the planning of indigenous trees and vegetation. Each green-wedge will support a rapid-transit corridor between the CBD and one of the three new nodes.

The CIP will cover metropolitan Luanda and require multi-jurisdiction coordination between Luanda’s five municipalities and the Luanda provincial Government. In order to implement the CIP the provincial Government will need to approve a set of new bye-laws and revise some existing zoning to allow for multi-land use and set some new regulations such as parking-fees and coordinate city wide rubbish/waste management and a well controlled modern land-fill.

The acquisition of land for the creation of green-wedges as well for the development of corridors for rapid-transit lines will require careful and regular consultation with affected or adjacent local communities. Plans must demonstrate that improved environmental services and transport will directly benefit low-income areas. Land values will inevitably increase in areas adjacent to the new corridors and around the nodes. Land readjustment/pooling approaches can encourage buy-in from neighboring communities who may lose some land but find their retained land has increased substantially in value. Communities adjacent to the new green wedges should be permitted to acquire allotments for gardens and urban food production and compost their household organic waste. The proposed “Green CIP” will require some remedial actions to correct existing urban patterns and adapt to Luanda’s post-war population explosion. It will promote water and sanitation upgrading to at least meet MDG targets, and promote consultative planning processes that are inclusive of poor residents.

Soumya Dharmavaram - Tuesday, 25 September 2012, 10:16 PM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

Thanks, Allan. It is interesting that the ring road development Luanda has resulted in leap-frogging. Something for us to consider when we talk of relieving the traffic pressure within our cities. We would like to hear more details about the transportation system in Luanda.

Ilídio Daio - Wednesday, 26 September 2012, 04:41 AM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

Dear Soumya and collegues,
In my opinion would be very difficult to finance large investment in transport services. Should be taken combined measures integrating land use and transport, such:

- Transit oriented development strategy, creating high density mix use urban nodes, to facilitate accessibility where employment, services and residence are agglomerated.

- Balancing rings and radials roads, maximizing their capacities with a spatial strategic planning.

Transport demand management play a very important role in rapidly growing cities, that combined measures guided with a strategic planning are part of solution.

Andre Melo - Wednesday, 26 September 2012, 12:30 PM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

The successful implementation of the planned transport infrastructure and land use for Luanda, as described by Allan, will require a double pronged approach. As jurisdictional strategies are worked on from the top, a lot of ground work should also be done with households at neighborhood level.

 There is great need to carry out massive sentizations, demonstrations, and monitoring of household waste transformation to compost which can be used for urban kitchen gardening in Luanda's neighborhoods. This will produce several benefits. Besides those associated with reduced household expenditures on food and improvements on their dietary nutritional value, it will help households optimize water usage and reduce their contribution to undesignated gabbage fills which provoke flooding.

 Ultimately, this broad based strategy will prevent roads in low-income neighborhoods from being damaged by open running waste water. Land Readjustment models also have the capacity to facilitate the merging of household/neighborhood efforts with those of the communal/municipal administrations to put road, water, sewer, and electricity networks in conditions that serve the needs of low-income communities and facilitate the collection of tax/levies on these services by the designated entities.

Klara Danilovic - Monday, 24 September 2012, 10:02 AM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

Dear Vanessa,
Thank you for bringing in some very interesting issues, such as subsidies for fuel. It is very interesting to read how Luanda tries to solve the transportation challenges. Your latest statement is rather strong. Informal transport means seem to be unsustainable. Do you think that some kind of public campaign could help to promote new mass transit system, or only economic instruments and enforcement of rules can suppress informal transport means?

Jose Van-Dunem - Tuesday, 25 September 2012, 10:04 AM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

Hi everyone,
Concerning the question, I don’t think that financing large investments in transportation related taxes only would be the solution to address traffic congestion problems specially in developing countries. Just to add to what most have said and relating to Luanda’s context. I think that mass investment in transportation may also imply more use of private automobile if private ownership is not controlled. The government in Luanda is investing regularly in transportation system by recovering and reconstructing roads which were once in bad conditions but the levels of traffic congestion still rising every day. Other issue is the quality of the infrastructure itself is questionable because the new upgraded and constructed roads don’t last for long period of time. Some routes are easily degraded and the authorities have to repay companies to repeat the process.

Nuno Reis - Tuesday, 25 September 2012, 11:30 AM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

Hi Jose,
I think that you are correct in your analysis. On the one hand people in developing countries lack the resources to pay taxes on the other hand there is no efficient supervision of construction of roads and public infrastructure. However, I still think that it is important to have public transportation systems that are efficient and cheep. I also understand that a reorganization of urban space with greater proximity of people to the activity and businesses centers would reduce the need for investment in transport infrastructure because we would have the reduction of people need to move or circulate.

Jose Van-Dunem - Tuesday, 25 September 2012, 12:23 PM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

Yeah Nuno! I agree with you completely. In the case of Luanda, at the moment it is not viable to implement measures like fuel price hike and motor vehicle import taxes. People don’t have efficient public transportation alternative to travel to work and access services; the city would simply stall because private motor vehicle has been the solution for many of us. Other measures would be to locate new services around neighborhoods to prevent people from travelling long distances while there is no BRT, proper functioning bus and trains.

José Tiago Catito - Tuesday, 25 September 2012, 01:50 PM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

Hi I agree with you José. I'm joining the discussion only today, but I'd like to share my opinion concerning to Luanda.  Some years ago the government increased the fuel prices, and the taxes for imported vehicles, one of the objectives was to reduce the flow of vehicles circulating in the city making the chaotic traffic, but it didn’t work because such measures do not take into account that most people use private transport instead of public transport that does not satisfies the demand.

Another aspect has to do with the network of roads in the periphery is in most cases in poor condition which makes movement difficult, access to services is poor and people has to travel long distances to get this services. As measures to mitigate these problems should be implemented multi-sectorial plans involving several structures as urban planning and construction, land administration, environment, transport and others. I believe there are already plans, but while they are not implemented successfully, the framework of Luanda will still continue to be chaotic.

Ilídio Daio - Friday, 21 September 2012, 09:17 PM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

Dear Pedro, Soumya and collegues,
China has being exercise a strong influence in Africa in several domains, and the urban one of the more relevates. 
Angola 3rd economy in Africa in 10 years after the end of war, and Luanda the capital, is facing a fast urbanization and belong between the 3 more expensive cities in the world. 

In this city, was planned and built a brand new township by Chinese named "kilamba."  
Have 5.400 Ha , with 377 buildings with 8 /12 floors (total 750 buildings in the end of project.) 
This new township dist 20 km from Luanda CBD, with some inadequacies of transport accessibility as well as financial for affordability in purchasing of the apartments. Some press she calls "ghost city." See link.

I have two questions:

1 - Do you think that could have local technicians' coordination with the Chinese companies in the next phases? and How? 

2 - What influence can have the transports sector to dynamise, and reshape that city?

 Pedro Ortiz - Sunday, 23 September 2012, 07:10 PM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

Dear Llidio, 

What is the rate of growth of Luanda? We shall extrapolate that and see what Luanda should make to cope with that and address a sustainable future. if we don't have this approach that future is going to overrun us, as it probably doing right now... 

I have been looking to the location of the Chinese 'citadel'. The location is strategic and even though new-towns don't work (and we can discuss that if you would like to) it can be integrated in the overall pattern of Luanda's growth structure. 

Let's discuss that. How much, where and how to foresee and respond to the needs of Luanda. Would you like to explore that? Those are the essential questions we have to answer to address both your questions on how to dialogue with the Chinese project and how to use the transport policies to shape the future of the Metropolis.

Pedro Ortiz - Sunday, 23 September 2012, 08:17 PM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

Public Administration in urban planning fulfils two roles:
1- Fosters development by the proposals and interventions it makes. It's the propositive side. The investments (infrastructures and facilities) and the leadership role. Those are the commitments of the public sector.

2- It controls the private sector to avoid the negative externalities of it. (Have a look to the analysis on 'externalities' made in the Tsendsuren response) For this policing role you must have the capacity to implement the necessary urban discipline. If you don't then everyone will do whatever they want and you have to cope with it. 'Legalizing' afterwards might be of no use if you still are unable to enforce urban discipline and the uncontrolled building process will go on.

 To do correct planning you need both. Public sector leadership and private sector control. If any of both is missing, we are in trouble. And in many (most) places we are in deep trouble!

But, do not forget that even if you have both you must know how to use it:
1- Leadership must be 'legitimate'. You must really have to point to the right direction and do the investments necessary, efficient, equitable and sustainable.

2- And Control must be flexible and the outcome of a dialogue where the private sector has the freedom to have initiatives and entrepreneurship. They are the ones that produce economic development and wealth. So, what you have to do with the private sector is to give them freedom and control the externalities, the negative ones. 

In planning this is not easy, because it is not easy to calculate the long term effect of those externalities. A cost-benefit analysis in each case is not possible. Then you have to rely in regulations that would provide the framework to control the negative externalities. But you have to be very much aware that that is the purpose of those regulations. 

let me say that they have to be: 'The minimum possible and the maximum necessary'... and not the other way around.

Pedro Ortiz - Monday, 24 September 2012, 03:55 AM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

Luanda has two very clear directionalities:
1) The coast and 2) the inland axis.

These two directionalities join at the historic city center and produce an orbital structure defined by the diagonals that enclose the urban consolidated continuum. 
The crossing of the orbital structure with the inland directionality is the most important strategic point for development. The Industrial parks have been located there. Industrial activities are not the best for those strategic locations. They should be of an upper rank. Directional centers of tertiary and office activities would be better in the long term. They must be linked to the historic center by a BRT, a LRT or a rail commuter line.

 The structure is very similar to Dar es Salaam. You should look at this. 

The Chinese new town along the orbital road could become in the future a sub-center for that area of the metropolis, but the whole structure has be be thought over and not just let to be devolved by disjointed incrementalism by foreign forces which are looking for the long term General Interest of Luanda nor Angola. 

Would you like to develop these concepts?

Ilídio Daio - Wednesday, 26 September 2012, 05:18 AM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

Dear Pedro,
 Luanda urban growth is about 8 % a year. I think that kilamba new township, will create another inland growth corridor, but should be combined with a inner ring trunk infrastructure (rail, express road) with a future radial system integrating land use and transport, creating a new linear compact node between CBD and chinese township.

Pedro Ortiz - Wednesday, 26 September 2012, 01:42 PM
Re: Urban Growth & Infrastructure

Dear Ilidio
8% is enormous! That means 100% in less than 10 years! Luanda is doubling its size every ten years. You have to produce, provide land for all these people. That is the only way of not making a mess for the future of Luanda and Angola (the share of the Capital in the economy of the country makes of it a national problem and not just a municipal one.)

I am afraid the policies you just mentioned are not enough to address the issue. And there is a serious administration responsibility on addressing these issues in the right way and the right dimension if one does not want to be accountable for the mess that one can leave behind.

There are solutions. There is only the need to be able to address the issue at the right level and produce the discussions and solutions at that level.

Best, Pedro

Post Scriptum: Beware of 'ring roads'. They create an orbital system that takes you to congestion and gridlock as the final outcome. Rather better to create linear corridors to expand and decongestion.