DW AngolaModule 1: Tell Us About Your City - Twelve Participants

Module 1: Tell Us About Your City - Twelve Participants


José Tiago Catito - 04:17 PM
Tell us about your city

Luanda is the smallest province of Angola, with 24,651 km ² in area. Its population is approximately 5 million inhabitants. Its capital is Luanda, the capital and largest city of Angola. Luanda's also the most industrialized province of Angola and the greater economic growth, having suffered few effects of the Civil War and it has also benefited from the exodus of people from their areas of origin to Luanda. With the economic and social stability of recent years, Luanda has enjoyed numerous new investments.

Administrative reform of 2011, the province saw its enlarged area, and it will have seven counties:
Icolo e Bengo

The former municipalities of Ingombota, Kilamba Kiaxi, Maianga, Rangel, Samba and Sambizanga now form the new city of Luanda. Luanda has a bay and a sandbank, Ilha de Luanda, which spans more than fourteen miles of beaches, restaurants and houses of fishermen. The city centre is undergoing transformations and skyscrapers contrast with the very sophisticated slums around the city. It is believed that over 70% of the population of the capital living in suburban areas. Luanda Sul is the largest housing development area and is the site where it was built the first shopping centre in Angola - the Belas Shopping - Fine in the city.


Vanessa Maschio dos Reis - Monday, 10 September 2012, 06:13 PM
Re: Tell us about your city

Hi everybody, here follows my case-study Luanda. 
I am providing the images of the city and I will post them still today.

a. name: Luanda (country: Angola)
b. urban hierarchy: National Capital
c. primary urban function: political-administrative
d. land area (km2): 18.826 (Province) and 2.181(05 non-rural municipalities) Source: Governo Provincial de Luanda
e. urban population: 4.511.000 (UNSD-2009)
f. density (population/km2): 2.068

Luanda is the Capital of Angola, a political and administrative centre and the main national port. It is also the main financial centre of a national economy based mainly on oil and diamond extraction. As a Portuguese colony for more than four centuries, it is explicit the typically European signature of its urban design.

During the civil war, which began soon after independence in 1975, the capital served as a refuge for most of the rural population, which caused a demographic leap from 1.822.000 citizens in 1993 (ESDF) to 4.511.000 in 2009 (UNSD). This rapid growth resulted in both a suburban territorial sprawl (mainly slums a.k.a. musseques) as the saturation of the existing urban infrastructure. Since peace was established in 2002, the government has been concentrating its efforts on redevelopment of urban areas, the creation of new centralities in peri-urban areas and the allocation of infrastructure in the slums territories.

The urban area of Luanda spans five of the seven municipalities that fulfil the province of Luanda, whose territories had their political and administrative boundaries recently refurbished by Law n. 29/11 of September 2011. The Government points out as the key factors that drove the boundary changes of this Province, apart from general administrative and technical issues, the increase of the number of inhabitants and of the value of public assets, as well as infrastructure deployment needs.

Jose Van-Dunem - Monday, 10 September 2012, 11:40 AM
Re: Tell us about your city

Hi everyone, I am Jose Van Dunem from Angola (Luanda). I have recently graduated in Town Planning (in South Africa) and I am currently located in Luanda which is the capital city of Angola. Luanda is situated on the cost of Atlantic Ocean and is the country´s main economic center as it holds the headquarters of country´s major companies, industry as well as the nation´s main port. The main economic activities involve manufacturing, commerce, oil off shores and refineries. The population is estimated at 6.7 million people in an extension of 24.651 km² resulting in density of 271/km2 which is extremely high.

I am working as a planning technician in a recently created cabinet which is responsible for carrying out the process of urban requalification of one of the most populated municipalities called Cazenga (with 2 million inhabitants) and two other districts Sambizanga and Rangel, with estimated population of 800 and 200 people respectively. These areas are characterized by lack of basic services, sanitation, slums placing immense challenges on the government to carry out poverty eradication programme and provision of service delivery.

Leonardo Cambumba Samunga - Monday, 10 September 2012, 04:44 PM
Re: Tell us about your city

Cacuaco is a town and municipality in the province of Luanda, Angola. It has 571 km ² and approximately 950 million inhabitants with a population density of 1664 inhab. / Km ² is Limits the south with the municipalities of Viana and Cazenga, west by the Atlantic Ocean and the municipality of Sambizanga the north and east with the municipality of Dande, Bengo province. The municipality of Cacuaco is crossed from north to south by the River Bengo. Communes (3): Cacuaco, Kicolo, Funda. It is a tourist area considered for has beautiful beaches and a hotel chain acceptable.


Etelvina Saldanha - Monday, 10 September 2012, 12:47 PM
Re: Tell us about your city

Name of city: Angola, Province: Luanda
Urban hierarchy: city; municipality, communes, district
Primary urban function: Administrative, market, manufacturing, finance.
Land area: (km2); 12467000 Km2
Urban population ; 20.609.294
Density: (population/km2) 516,6 /km²

In Angola, it is generally accepted that the weight of the informal sector in the economy is massive, the informal sector continues to weigh nothing trivial in wealth created annually. As might be expected in developing countries, given their economic structures often more fragile, which is the case in my town although we are on track to head the steps too wide, but in general, the existence of political conjunctures, less favourable social and legal, which makes us more susceptible proliferation of informal or parallel economy.

Although the weight of the informal sector is an unavoidable reality in the country, at least in the short term, and this is responsible for providing livelihood to a large majority of the population, we cannot close our eyes to the negative consequences that entails for the informal economy economic and social development of Angola. First, informal economic activities are not taxed. This limits the outset, the redistribution of wealth associated with taxes on corporate profits. The revenue collected by the state is not money that will not be channelled to increase the wellbeing of Angolans, delaying the march of Angola towards a more just and equitable society. Furthermore, companies that operate in the informal sector alienate themselves generally of banking practices and conduct business with the financial system.

Another disadvantage generated by economic informality is that jeopardize the prospects for business growth. The informal sector businesses employ usually only its owner, which is not generating more jobs and not contributing more effectively to create wealth in their surroundings, practice a price list which varies from day to day. You can still say that the informal sector has been unable to generate resources and solutions to put the Angolan economy in more advanced levels of development, it should be noted that informal economic activity may be a catalyst unwanted illegal activities such as marketing goods stolen, counterfeit or smuggled.

One of the changes our government is via the incentive to microcredit and BUE is the new service that concentrates in one place, delegations of various services, public administration involved in the process of incorporation and licensing of micro enterprises, Small Business, with supervision of the Ministry of Justice. With this program we intend to conduct the promotion and development of small businesses scale, with the following objectives: Increasing the supply of goods and services Angolans; The creation of jobs and consequent poverty reduction; Reduce the informal economy; Stimulate the frequency of vocational training.

Vanessa Maschio dos Reis - Monday, 10 September 2012, 06:48 PM
Re: Tell us about your city

Hello Jyotti

The data you presented on Mumbai caught my attention. I realized that the urban area has very high density and is one of the most populous cities in the world. The challenges are great! I would like to know more about Mumbai, these whole inhabitants are from recent migration? In your view, what forces have acted in the way of urban Mumbai? How is the density distributed in the city?

 In the case of Luanda, Its density is not equally distributed through its urban area. Estimates indicate that about ¾ of the urban population lives in the suburban slums. This also means different densities according to the types of occupation. E.g., the District of Rangel, located in a central area, has a high population density (20.995 hab/Km2, according to GPL*) if compared to the Municipality of Cacuaco, which is located in a peri-urban and expansion-vector area (aprox. 23 hab/Km2, according to GPL*). But while both share a low-income profile, on the other hand there is an expansion-vector area that has been established as a new centrality, in the Municipality of Belas, occupied partially by low-density condominiums and aiming a high-income population, composed usually of foreigners.

This high density of Luanda's urban area is justified mainly from the migration of rural communities during the armed conflict. Centripetal forces acted in this densification process.

In recent years, the government has focused on creating new centers in peri-urban areas with the aim of attracting as much resettle the population that occupies the central area of the city. Given the concepts presented in Module 1, I realize that these new centers are designed to act as centrifugal forces to minimize urban sprawl and population density of downtown.

Yvette Mónica Carrillo Salomón - Monday, 10 September 2012, 09:54 PM
Re: Tell us about your city

Dear Vanessa,
It is true that the city is considered as a complete artistic expression of the Modern Movement -urbanism and architecture are associated with landscaping by Burle Marx and works of art of great expression in public spaces and buildings. BUT what I see now are spaces that are underused, degraded or in process of abandonment; I see the loss of functionality of some areas in the urban structure; a deteriorating process of valued regions of the city which could receive better uses. There are a lot of urban voids used as parking lots, areas with exposed soil, illegal deposits of waste, empty plots, sectors in abandoning process, and the gaps generated by infrastructure networks. These are the main examples that have generated serious impacts on the urban landscape of Brasilia World Heritage. I think indeed it must be a change.

Vanessa Maschio dos Reis - Thursday, 13 September 2012, 11:00 PM
Re: Tell us about your city

Hello Jyotti

Sorry for the delay in answering... and thanks for your comment.

 First I would like to clarify a crucial point about the Luanda's data. In Angola the last population census has been run in 1970, period when the country was still under the colony of Portugal and before the armed conflict which caused the mass migrations, which in turn formed the bulk of the suburb of Luanda. Current data about the territorialisation of Luanda's population are based merely on estimates, not always reliable sources.

So, by my perceptions of landscape transformations, I can say that the measures adopted by the government have not been effective in achieving these goals.

 The core city is a highly valued area and its density keeps on growing, even constructively. This consolidation brings consequences such as loss of cultural heritage and historic buildings and the saturation of road infrastructure installed. 

Some suburban areas are being rehabilitated, followed by removal of the poor masses who cannot afford the space that will be rehabilitated, what happens to be a clear evidence of a gentrification process, e.g. the Prenda's area.

Much of the poor population has been relocated to Zango's area, located on the far urban periphery. This new centrality is a place that, despite the decent housing availability, there is a serious lack of proper infrastructure and transportation services. The poorest people in this area have been relocated far away from the core city, where the usual job opportunities are, although informal.

 And there is the case of Kilamba City. Apart from its housing stock of over 3,000 housing units built (in its 1st phase), in May 2012 it was occupied with few than 50 families. The major difficulties for the occupation of these housing are the unaffordable prices to most of the population, the difficulty of registration and funding.

 Nevertheless, a new population census is expected for 2013.

Ilídio Daio - Tuesday, 11 September 2012, 02:26 AM
Re: Tell us about your city

Hi everybody! My name is Ilídio Daio, i'm from Luanda capital of Angola.

City of Luanda capital of Angola, Province of Luanda,
Urban hierarchy; city; municipality, district and communes,
Primary urban function; Administrative, logistic, tourism, finance,
Land area (km2); 18713 km2, after new administrative boundary division (adding two big rural municipalities), but the previous urban center area were about 1104 km2
Urban population; about 6 Milion
Density (population/km2); 320pop./ km2 after new administrative boundary division, but the previous urban center area were about 5434 pop./ km2 , highlighting that Cazenga Municipality (see map attached) with 41 km2 (2% of The Urban Luanda area) have 2,5 million population (1/3 of the total Luanda population), representing 60975 pop./ km2, overcrowded very dense flooding slum area.

Allan Cain - Tuesday, 11 September 2012, 08:50 PM
Re: Tell us about your city

Here is my assignment for FORUM 1 on Luanda.

Name of city: Luanda
Province: Luanda
Country: Angola
Urban hierarchy: capital, secondary city, small town or others;

Luanda is the capital city of Angola, but also a municipality within the province of Luanda. It is also considered by urban planners to be a metropolitan region. Angola is going through a protracted period of administrative restructuring that has the eventual aim of creating a new level of local governance. For the purposes of this exercise I will refer to the urban structure of Luanda as it existed up until recently. I will provide a map showing the traditional urban administrative form of the city as well as the new form into which it will evolve. The process has not yet been completed.

Primary urban function: Administrative, market, manufacturing, tourism, finance, or others;

Angola is a highly centralised country (politically & economically) and the capital city Luanda is many times larger than any other provincial urban centre. It is therefore the administrative, marketing and financial centre of Angola. The wealth of Angola is drawn from its extractive industries of petroleum and diamonds. While these primary sources of wealth are mainly distant from the capital, the management and financial control of these industries are all channelled through Luanda. Luanda is a port city with a hinterland extending to the northern region of the country, with road and rail links running west to east reinforcing its role as a transport hub.

Land area (km2); The province of Luanda has a land area of 2,257 km². The area occupied by Luanda’s formal and informal settlements in 2010 was 350 km²

Urban population: The last census of Luanda was carried out in 1983. Since then the Angolan civil war forced a large number of internally displaced persons into the relative safety of the capital region. Development Workshop’s GIS department has been monitoring the population growth of Luanda over the last decade since the end of the conflict using remote sensing using satellite imagery. We estimate that Luanda’s population today to be over 6.5 million people. It is probably one of Africa’s fastest growing urban areas.

Density (population/km2): Luanda’s average urban density is 18,570 persons per km² but some of the high density inner-city slums have densities over 50,000 persons per km². The annual population growth rate over the last decade has been over 6% per year.

Massamba Dominique - Friday, 7 September 2012, 03:00 PM
Re: Tell us about your city

Greetings to all course participants. 

I am very happy to be part of this course, the first time I participate in a course in gender, and hope to learn a lot about planning and urban land use. 
Luanda is the smallest province of Angola, with 24,651 km ² in area. It has a population of approximately 5 million inhabitants. Luanda's also the most industrialized province of Angola and the greater economic growth, having suffered few effects of the Civil War and it has also benefited from the exodus of people from their areas of origin to Luanda. Due to the large population growth experienced by the city, the price of land / land increased and the slums of the city continued until near the border towns. Luanda this receiving various projects implemented by the government and many without infrastruture and this causes the population are concentrated in cities.

Moisés Festo - Thursday, 6 September 2012, 04:03 PM
Re: Tell us about your city

Greetings all.
I am very pleased to be participating in this course. Let me present to you a few lines to my city. The Huambo city is the capital of the province of Huambo. It has a surface of 2,609 km2 and a population of approximately 1,200,000 inhabitants. More than 75% of the population lives in peri urban city.

It is one of the cities destroyed by the civil war that ravaged the country for 30 years. With the war many services no longer exist, especially what regulated the land, both urban and rural. Due to natural population growth and migration factors the city grew from a physical standpoint and no monitoring of an institution of the provincial government. As a result, citizens have no document in possession of the space occupied by them, are disordered neighbourhoods, districts without infrastructure. Moreover, the government is implementing projects and distribution of allotments of plots without infrastructure.

The great challenge now facing the peri urban is applying methodologies for rehabilitation of these areas. The shortage of qualified staff within government agencies to respond is a factor that leads to the application of methods less suitable for the implementation of urban requalification projects. The public transport services and communication are still very weak and expensive compared to other African countries.

Moisés Festo - Monday, 10 September 2012, 05:01 PM
Re: Tell us about your city,

I'm Festo from Huambo/Angola. I agree that privatization have a negative influences in urban plan. other issues that contribute negatively in implementation of urban plan is a lack of directory (head) plan, that define where urban land started. Per example here in Angola our land law  gives different treatment between urban land and rural land. according the law, the rural land must be management through costmary low, but same times we don´t know where is rural and urban land. This situation has caused conflicts mainly between government institutions and citizen

Carlos Figueiredo - Wednesday, 12 September 2012, 07:20 AM
Re: Tell us about your city,

Huambo is a city recovering from a long and bitter civil war (1974-2002)
A. Huambo, Angola.
B. Huambo is the provincial capital of Huambo. An important administrative centre. Huambo is also an economic centre for its role in the Benguela Railway (Huambo has the central workshop of the railway) and for the commerce of agriculture products. Huambo is somehow the centre of a region that is much broader than the province, Central Highlands.
C. The city occupies around 50 km2
D. The urban population is of about 300.000 inhabitants (not reliable data exists but a census is under way and data should be available soon)
E. 6000 inhabitants / km2