DW AngolaModule 7: Climate Change and Land Use Planning - Sixteen Participants

Module 7: Climate Change and Land Use Planning - Sixteen Participants

21/10/2012

Andre Melo - 10:28 AM
Climate Change and Land Use Planning

There are four major strategies that Mexico City can implement to counter the impact of variability and extremes in temperature and rainfall through land use planning. The first is the relocation of some industries to other cities. Turning a different city, a good distance away from Mexico city into the new cultural center is the second strategy. Third, increase the number of highway connections between Mexico City and the city to become the new cultural center as well as the other cities to which some of the industries are (to be) relocated. Last, redevelop the buildings and space previously occupied by relocated industries and cultural facilities making the buildings more energy efficient, and creating more green parks of the unbuilt space.

There are many other possibilities but these four are more realistic as they can be planned at relatively lower costs and their implementation can be carried out in a way that involves all stake holders including the public sector, the national private sector, multinational, small, medium, and large scale investors, thus minimizing and sharing implementation costs. This can also be done in phases to avoid complete shutdowns of the relocated industries. This process will almost automatically lead to the the relocation of people from Mexico City to the various relocation areas of the industries and cultural center. The selection of which industries to relocate can be done by level of Green House Gas emissions. The higher the level, the more the likelihood of being relocated. This can also serve as a great regulatory tool for emissions within Mexico City.


 

Allan Cain - Sunday, 21 October 2012,  12:55 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear participants,
From a point of view from Africa another dimension of Climate Change that should be considered is that of "social justice". Often developing regions have contributed little to net Global Warming but are the most severely affected by climate changes. Not only have countries that cannot be blamed for causing climate change been the most affected, but within those countries, communities such as the urban poor who have no choice but to settle in cheap marginal land in flood-prone river basins and coastal areas are the most vulnerable victims. The Kyoto Carbon Credit mechanisms allows polluting nations in the North to continue to pollute and contribute to Global Warning by paying a penalty while paying developing nations to cut down their carbon production. Somehow, there appears to be a glaring contradiction in this logic. While penalties may provide some deterrent, should not transfer funds from this mechanism be invested in helping communities in developing countries to reduce their vulnerability and adapt to the climate change that is already inevitable, rather than shifting the responsibility to reduce carbon emissions to countries that are already producing comparatively little?


Allan Cain - Sunday, 21 October 2012, 06:12 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear Soumya,
Potential land use will need to be determined based on an assessment of environmental risks that threaten to be exacerbated by climate change. This could be considered in a process of "pre-disaster" preparation. In Luanda we carried out a participatory urban environmental vulnerably assessment several years ago to map out areas of the city that were most susceptible to flooding and erosion. We did this at the end of a particularly disastrous rainy season that allowed us to easily to map these areas with the participation of local residents groups and the staff of the municipal administrations. We are able to use Arial photography to plot out the extent of flooding. The accompanying map demonstrates the various types of risks that we found (flash-flooding, erosion, standing water and waste accumulation). A GIS analysis allowed us to estimate the populations affected by each type of risk.


Alain Phe - Tuesday, 23 October 2012, 05:51 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear Allan and Ghadir,
Of course I believe that developed countries should take their full responsibilities on the global environmental situation by signing the Kyoto protocol and doubling efforts to zero emissions and share their knowledge and technology. I also think it is a twisted thing to think that buying credit to pollute will change anything. We are really in the global market economy, everything is for sale and can be bought. In the contrary, it is just a way for status quo between developed and developing countries, between the ones having the means to pay and the ones having the benefit to sell. At the end we share the same world and air which continue to be exploited and polluted.

Apart from the fact that carbon credit mechanisms exist, do you mean that it should be right for our countries to pollute anyway with short and long term consequences? Do you think that we can only develop by polluting?
Do you think that it is more costly to develop green?


Etelvina Saldanha - Monday, 22 October 2012, 04:07 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear All,
In Africa, the major environmental issues include, Land degradation, deforestation, degradation habitat, stress, water shortages, soil erosion and degradation coastal area, floods, droughts and conflicts armed. These and other problems have contributed to environmental change that aggravated underdevelopment, poverty and food insecurity in the region. They also have limited the effectiveness of various measures response, as the Lagos Plan of Action and other policies environmental, which have been adopted by the region at the last thirty years. Tackling the issues environment of the region is not just an option, but it is a key step towards achieving development sustainable, without which poverty will continue worsening, which contributes to further exploit Excessive environment.


Dansoaa Siaw-Misa - Monday, 22 October 2012, 10:14 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Hello Etelvina,
I agree with all your comments on the issues regarding Africa. However, I don't believe that they are phenomenon’s peculiar to Africa. They have the propensity to occur anywhere across the world. Throughout the numerous modules we have studies we have seen examples of countries that have been able to pull themselves out of this state of near 'hopelessness' Africa seems to find itself in. It takes leadership with vision, drive and the commitment to see policies through, and to stick by them regardless of the 'political' consequences. We need to be more proactive in our policies through enhanced education and interaction with all stake holders.


Andre Melo - Tuesday, 23 October 2012, 03:58 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear Gabriel,

It's great you pointed out the various programs that Mexico has embarked on to mitigate and/or adapt to the impact of climate change and reduce its green house gas footprint on the environment. However, you are not clear whether these programs are implemented in Mexico as a whole or they are specially focused on Mexico City. If the former is the case, there is need to design programs specifically tailored to deal with GHG issues in Mexico City considering the environmental burden for which it is responsible as a single city. If the latter is the case, for how long are these programs in course, and are they being monitored for any measurable success? From my understanding, most of the data presented in the case study are pretty recent, 2011 which makes me believe that the profile of the city has not changed much since. Please, send the information you referred to. It might help clarify my concerns.


Gabriel Todd - Tuesday, 23 October 2012, 05:22 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Andre,
Thanks for asking. All the documents I sent belong to Mexico City except the one where I say that belong to Nuevo Leon State, where Monterrey, my city (North of the country) is the capital. So, Both cities do have an action plan. Of course problems are bigger right now that the capacity to solve them and much needs to be done still to make citizens and politics work together in this issue. But at least we have a guide and this intention clear, may be theorically but it has launch some actions. The bike program in Mexico city... the Integrated state urban development plan in my state NL (I send you all this file on module 2 I think)... Small steps, baby steps for a Big monster out there in urban life. One of the principle to deal in the next years to come is  "TO LIVE NEAR YOUR LIFE" because no sustainable effort would be enough if everybody lives 40 km away frame work, school etc..." We need to stop the housing national program in my country (INFONAVIT) and change it to "create a city not a subdivision program"...etc etc..many things to be done.


Etelvina Saldanha - Tuesday, 23 October 2012, 04:38 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear Soumya,
About the comment "All these suggestions are excellent. But the real question is: if we all know what must be done, for this is not happening? We try to go beyond the wish list and see how our ideas can be implemented. What do you think would be the barriers in getting Mexico City or the city to adopt land use policies?" I think everything has to do with the effectiveness which the Mexican government has solved the issues, even the way that leads people to enforce the rules to reduce the gases emission, should be more imminent or go where the people feel more "pocket" is too complicated to try to apply a European position in the African country, and having lived in Europe is amazing the way the Europeans governors can achieve results by educating people with alert Fines and taxes. Unfortunately in Africa with our autdoors, TV civics Alerts do not work at this point.


Etelvina Saldanha - Tuesday, 23 October 2012, 05:08 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear Biljana Pavlovic,
I really think people are not aware of all the bad effects that pollution and climate conditions may affect our parents and contaminate the water we have puca slowly the government is doing work at least in the collection and recycling solid waste and create more green spots in the city, the average albeit very shy are also trying to educate the people on the collection of garbage, but we have much work ahead, in relation to transport, we have 2 to 3 cars per house, the public transport system malfunctions, so the bad gases on the road are many, they also have a high number of cars and polluent old trucks. 
Renewable energy sources are zero, we now begin to use solar panels at traffic lights and some homes, but in view of the high value of the panels many people prefer to continue to use the generator, due to our system of electrical power have 1 faulty generator for home, not to mention that generators produce noise, not have much industry since we import most of consumables ... but we have other problems and a long way to traverse.


Biljana Pavlovic - Wednesday, 24 October 2012, 10:13 AM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear Etelvina,
Overall I agree with you. And in my country, we are facing the same problems. It is obvious that environmental problems the same everywhere and a lot of them require urgent attention. However, often lack mechanisms for the resolution (lack of funds, at least in my town), but sometimes lack the will and awareness to identify and eliminate, especially in local government. There are many thing we are have to work.


Etelvina Saldanha - Tuesday, 23 October 2012, 05:21 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear Dansoaa Siaw-Misa,
I also agree when you say "We need to be more proactive in our policies through enhanced education and interaction with all stake holders." This is the fundamental basis for we can get somewhere, we have to educate future generations to take care of our planet for tomorrow does not have a threatening aspect


Claudia Funes - Tuesday, 23 October 2012, 10:00 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Allan/ Ghadir/ David/ Alain:
 How could one not agree? 
Want to point two things: 1. my country has a lot of forests and could apply but I believe we are not really benefiting from the transfer funds. Although, as you say, we do pay high costs of global warming with the extreme events. 

Central America is one of the region’s most vulnerable to natural hazards in the world. Located on the fringe of an unstable dance of tectonic plates, the region is threatened by earthquakes, a chain of active volcanoes, the notorious “Pacific ring of fire,” hurricanes, and storms. Population growth, unplanned and unregulated land use, lack of environmental controls, and poor application of building standards worsen the impacts of natural events and result in disasters with the accompanying loss of life, property, and wealth. Source: Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Central America, www.ecapra.org, 2012

2. Every day in Mexico and Central America (and I believe many other parts of the world), we are acquiring the "North American way of living". You will find houses with dishwashers (a ridiculous waste of water), TV's in every room (very common in middle-high class), laundry dryers (I admit, I have one I got as a gift, but I never use it, cause we have sun almost all year round!).

 Maybe, developed countries should learn from simpler ways of life in developing countries (yes, you can wash your car with a bucket of water or less) and this could help their economies. And we should analyze and take advantage of our traditional ways of living, introducing only changes and technology that would only benefit us (not only copying lifestyles without any previous thought).


Allan Cain - Tuesday, 23 October 2012, 10:46 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear Soumya,
I note that most of the discussion this week on climate change has been about "mitigation". While I think that it is laudable that cities in developing countries make their contributions to reducing greenhouse gasses and other causes of climate change, I think that we need to pay much more attention as planners to "adapting" to the inevitable affects of these changes that are in-fact largely beyond our control. While this may sound like a defeatist argument, we have to realise that climate change is largely caused by northern countries that have not even made the political commitment to sign the Kyoto Agreement. (noting that even Canada has recently withdrawn their Kyoto pledge).

As urbanists, we need to begin by reviewing our disaster contingency planning and realize that despite any mitigation measures that we may take our cities are going to become more and more vulnerable to flooding, droughts, storms and extreme weather events. Local communities need to be made aware of these new risks to their settlements and be encouraged to develop local solutions that adapt to the new realities. Traditional environmental protection measures make good sense such as green-belt planting along river courses and the avoidance of erosion-prone slopes and drainage basins. However these are the high-risk areas that the poor are pushed to settle in where land prices are cheap. Some of these problems will only be resolved by reducing urban poverty.


Ilídio Daio - Wednesday, 24 October 2012, 04:10 AM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear Soumya,
The city of Mexico, situated at an altitude of 2200 meters above sea level, surrounded by mountains and inactive volcanoes, was a huge lake with several swampy areas has grown as oil slick observing a large urban sprawl.
 This urban sprawl compounded with a huge population density, creates many problems of accessibility and mobility causing large emissions of greenhouse gases. Adoption of public transport and increase circulation rates for individual vehicles it's urgent measure. 
Mexico City can tackle the impacts of climate variability and extremes in temperature and rainfall attributed to climate change with the following measures of planning and land use "Drain to breath" strategy (see doc. Attached). 
Other measures of adaptation and mitigation should be taken, creating political financing transaction on your own carbon reducing some taxes and fees urban sensitizing residents to separate trash for recycling.
Create new regulations and buildings codes as the use of solar panels for heating to reduce high energy consumption, or green courtyards for CO2 sinks.


Ilídio Daio - Wednesday, 24 October 2012, 04:19 AM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear Etelvina,
I completely agree with you, with urban sprawl of Luanda peripherals slums, lack of infrastructure of electricity, water and transportation, brings high energy consumption of the base diesel electric generators, causing many greenhouse gases such as CO2, including causing the death of some people by sleeping with the electrical generator connected indoors.
Currently, here exists a weak power supply, related to drought derived from the lack of rain, rivers where the main lowered their flow. 
It creates a vicious cycle, climate change which causes a lack of rain, which consequently leads to poor electricity supply, which leads many residents of the slums of Luanda use diesel electric generators creating large emissions of dangerous greenhouse gases.
With s urban sprawl, transport informal many second-hand vehicles from Asia, many of them without maintenance, also cause large emissions of greenhouse gases.


Moisés Festo - Tuesday, 23 October 2012, 11:02 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear Klara,
We are poor in information about climate change, but they are evidenced in Huambo, for example, we have only the second season: rainy and dry. Normally, the rainy season starts on August 15 and end on May 15, the beginning of the dry season in May and end in August middle. Over the past three years, it is possible to verify a change in climatic behaviour, causing flooding in some areas of the province and elsewhere it is noted a lack of rain. The contribution that many people make concerning climatic changes has been the cutting of trees (deforestation) for the production of coal as an energy source. There is no control mechanism slaughter of trees and there are no policies for the preservation and creation of forests. I focused on deforestation, as one of the most remarkable actions applicable here and contributing significantly to climate change.


Vanessa Maschio dos Reis - Sunday, 21 October 2012, 06:01 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear Klara and all,
In my opinion, the actions that must be taken to combat the effects of climate change involving land use planning and establishment of urban control mechanisms Mexico City, are:
- Develop awareness campaigns to reduce the car use;
- Implement and control rates for private cars, such as congestion taxes, “carpools”, road space rationing etc;
- Implement public collective transport of low CO2 emissions;
- Implement the control of emissions of industrial gases.
- Promote the creation of parks in underutilized areas of the city.
- Promote the creation of linear parks along the drainage lines.
- Create regulations for constraining land owners with high levels of impermeable areas to implement tanks for collecting rainwater.
- Subsidize the landowners who own a significant percentage of permeable soil.
- Promote plantation of native tree species.
- Control high rising new buildings.
- Regulate a mandatory percentage of permeable soil to be installed in new construction plots.
- Regulate minimal amounts of trees on lots where new buildings will be installed.
- Regulate, for new constructions, mandatory collection, reservation and use of rainwater.


Jose Van-Dunem - Monday, 22 October 2012, 03:36 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear all,
Just to add to what most have already said, I think that the practical solution for Mexican City climate issues also includes urgent implementation of green transport systems.it may help to reduce the impact on environment. They should be promoting non motor vehicles like cycling, urban pathways and, knew vehicles using green emissions, BRTs Other strategies for developing countries would be to develop compact urban zones, to prevent people from using motor vehicles and travelling long distances.


Muhammad Reza Ansari - Tuesday, 23 October 2012, 11:53 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Hi dear Jose,
I'm completely agree with you and i think this can be a good action for reducing and controlling consumption of fossil fuels.


Nuno Reis - Tuesday, 23 October 2012, 12:11 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Hi all,
Mexico City is the fifth largest urban agglomeration in the world, showing very serious air pollution levels, reaching unhealthy ozone emissions nearly to 85% per year. Air pollution reflects very serious consequences for human health, particularly in the field of respiratory system. In addition to the high levels of car traffic the geographical characteristics of the region in which Mexico City is located also favour the high concentration of gaseous pollutants in urban space. Understanding that it does not appear possible or feasible to change the morphology of the region, we should seek a better and more effective urban planning with spatial redistribution of pollution sources and circulation systems, control and permanent monitoring of atmosphere pollution levels. It is imperative to limit the flow of motor traffic, looking forward to significantly reduce the number of cars that enter in the city limits, including through the imposition of tolls for access to the city and taxing the movement of vehicles in certain areas of the city. However, it is very important to guarantee the satisfaction of the needs of movement for the citizens of Mexico City through a network of collective passenger transport powered through energy produce from renewable sources.


Moisés Festo - Tuesday, 23 October 2012, 11:02 PM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear Klara,
I´m so sorry to be missed in Forun 3 and 5. I was missed because my grandmother passed away recently, but I read the materials related of those modules. We are poor in information about climate change, but they are evidenced in Huambo, for example, we have only the second season: rainy and dry. Normally, the rainy season starts on August 15 and end on May 15, the beginning of the dry season in May and end in August middle. Over the past three years, it is possible to verify a change in climatic behaviour, causing flooding in some areas of the province and elsewhere it is noted a lack of rain. The contribution that many people make concerning climatic changes has been the cutting of trees (deforestation) for the production of coal as an energy source. There is no control mechanism slaughter of trees and there are no policies for the preservation and creation of forests. I focused on deforestation, as one of the most remarkable actions applicable here and contributing significantly to climate change.


Nuno Reis - Wednesday, 24 October 2012, 03:49 AM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear Srdjan and Colleagues,
I agree that every city will have different problems related to environmental pollution levels and their sources, but all cities have to face common problems associated with the collection, sorting and treatment of solid residues, waste-water, energy efficiency and the consequences arising the process of global warming. In this sense, the definition of a strategy for dealing with climate change is common to all cities and has implications at the level of urban planning processes.


Nuno Reis - Wednesday, 24 October 2012, 04:11 AM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear Keisha and Colleagues,
I want to express my agreement with your position. Climate change it is reflecting his consequences at the global level and those that are responsible for urban planning will have to take in consideration, on their activity, the increasing intensity and regularity of weather phenomena with devastating consequences for cities and populations. The levels of devastation and the number of dead and injured in consequence of environmental phenomena are increasing. UNCHR believes that, in the future, the number of refugees in consequence of environmental crisis will be greater than the number of refugees resulting from wars. Those responsible for urban planning will have to organize cities to ensure a lower energy requirement for their functioning (whether in the field of constructions and in the field of transport), the search for alternative energy sources, reduction in water consumption, utilization of waters from the rains, the reduction of residue production and the effort to increase the treatment and recycling of residues. The city planner’s will also have to create and execute the construction of city models prepared to withstand the extreme heather conditions.


Massamba Dominique - Thursday, 25 October 2012, 10:21 AM
Re: Climate Change and Land Use Planning

Dear Klara,
I apologize for the post being so now the question of forum 7, as he said that I forgot the password only now that I could recover. For the city of Mexico to combat the impact of the variability and extremes of temperature and precipitation through land use planning first: have to do emissions inventory location for a mitigation strategy. Removal of large bridges to industries outside the cities. Implementation of behavioural tools, financial and tax to improve private green areas. Improve infras special structures to track Anibus, increase the connection road to avoid the traffic jam and also to prevent people from using motor vehicles and to make the long distance travel, there is much to prevent pollution.


AddThis