DW Angola First Year Interim Report: August 2010 to July 2011

First Year Interim Report: August 2010 to July 2011

31/07/2011

The project has already achieved some significant successes and is generally on schedule, and on some milestones ahead of schedule. We have a very active Partner Onganization base that meets on a very regular basis, to address the issues faces by the urban poor in Luanda. The constraints we face were already anticipated at the beginning of the program. The cooperation with the local and national government bodies has been positive but dealing with Angolan bureaucracy which is often slow to respond has obliged us to adjust  timeliness on some outputs. An unanticipated factor has been the Government’s plan to change the borders of Luanda’s municipalities and several senior staff changes in Municipal Administrations and maybe more significantly two changes of Luanda’s Governor and several of the cities top officials. The rotation of senior Government officers has meant that we will plan to give even more attention to training and supporting the newly appointed Municipal Administration staff in the development and execution of the Municipal Plans and Budgets. However in general we will continue implementing the program as planned. 

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Executive Summary

Click here for a list of abbreviations used in this report.

Progress and Results

Below you will find the Project Progress and Results for the 1st year
of the program. The Voices of Citizens for Urban Change program focuses
on 6 municipalities in the Luanda Province:

  • Cazenga
  • Cacuaco
  • Sambizanga
  • Rangel
  • Viana
  • Kilamba Kiaxi

Each municipality consists of several comunas, and each comuna consists of several bairros.

Each municipality consists of several comunas, and each comuna consists of several bairros.

Interesting background documents on the Angolan context:


Key Milestones Tab

Timeline year 1: Start 1st of August 2010, end 31st of July 2011. Total 12 months.

Milestones 1st annual Interim Report

Objective 1 - To influence public policy through the participatory monitoring of the MDG urban poverty indicators

Activity/Milestone 1. Baseline diagnostic studies carried out and MDG maps produced.
Target months: 7, 19, 31

New questionnaire has been developed, based on the urban poverty indicators adapted from the UNHabitat MDG recommendations. See annex sample questionnaire. Each questionnaire is filled by a focus group. Each focus group was composed of 10-20 selected residents and slum dwellers in the specific bairro indicated – influential individuals and members of community groups (church leaders, presidents/representatives of key associations such as the OMA, JMPLA, resident’s committee, “coordenadores de bairro e dos sectores”). They represent their bairro, and answer on behalf of their bairro. So the answers show the average level of access to and quality of services, constructions, etc. for their bairro. See annex Sambizanga questionnaire (filled). We have done the baseline questionnaires in 5 of the 6 municipalities.

Kilamba Kiaxi will be done soon and will be reported on in the next report. Gender issues are always mainstreamed in all DW programs. The questionnaire has specific questions to assess the position of women and girls. The baseline questionnaire shows the # of women consulted on the current level of services and other indicators in their neighborhood.

11 questions in the Questionnaire cover the access to, price of, time to collect, etc. of water. As the provision of water to the household is mainly a female responsibility the data coming from these answers gives us a good indication of the current situation. See annex DW gender strategy. From a recent WORLD BANK research that DW has done: we have discovered that now 46% of households are female headed! See annex World Bank Luanda Land Markets Final Report, page 80 & 81.

As the same questionnaire will be used annually throughout the runtime of the program, it will show improvements and/or deterioration on all the researched fields through the years. Each year we will ask our current and to be established focus groups to answer the questions again, so we can measure the improvements or deteriorations in the Municipalities throughout the 5 years leading up to 2015 (the target year for achieving the MDGs). Each questionnaire is entered in a database. The database has the ability to run QUERIES on all different indicators. From the database you can also import/export to excel. It allows us to analyze the information and share with our Partner Organizations and feed the updating of the Municipal Profiles.

The information from our research is entered in MDG ‘poverty indicator’ maps. This research is based on several sources: the questionnaires, GIS mapping, geo-referencing, other DW research and research reports done by other stakeholders, such as NGOs and organizations (UN, WB, the Angolan Government). These maps show per municipality the information per indicator; access to potable water, costs of water, population density, construction materials, road conditions, health services, educational services, etc. See annex Sambizanga MDG maps as an example.  The maps for Cacuaco, Sambizanga and Cazenga are done. The others are in the process.

We have used the information from the baseline study to update the Municipal Profiles. DW involves the Municipal Administrations and their staff in the production and updating of the Municipal Profiles. But because poverty is a sensitive issue, we have used the language that the Government uses in the IBEP (Inquérito de Bem-estar da Populacao) the well being indicators.       
See annex Municipal Profile Sambizanga 2011
See annex Municipal Profile Cacuaco 2011
See annex Municipal Profile Kilamba Kiaxi 2011
See annex Municipal Profile Cazenga 2011

The Municipal Profiles (MP) for Viana and Rangel will be developed in the second year of the program. But DW is dependent on the Municipal Administrations’ cooperation to come to a satisfactory level of the MPs. We share the information from the baseline and the MP with the CSO and Municipal Administrations in workshops, CACS, MCACS and forums.

Activity/Milestone 2. Five ACOs trained in monitoring tools in each municipality.
Target months: 10, 22, 34

The focus groups that filled the questionnaires were trained on how to collect the information and make sure that their questionnaire represents the situation in their bairro as accurately as possible. From each newly established focus group the leaders were trained. At one of the trainings we trained 60 focus group leaders, municipal CSO leaders and administrative staff from the government from Kilamba Kiaxi, from different comunas and bairros. This training started in August 2010.

In Cazenga we trained 15 people, in Sambizanga 10, Viana 8, Rangel 8, and Cacuaco 9. Trainings were carried out in the period from 15 November 2010 to 30 March 2011.
Cazenga : 9–13 August, and 16 – 19, 25 November 2010
Sambizanga: 22–25, 29 November 2010
Cacuaco: 1–03, 08 December 2010
Kilamba Kiaxi: 16-20 August 2010, 13-17 December, 2010
Viana: 11–14 de Janeiro, 2011
Rangel: March 2011 
110 people were trained in total, all in leading positions in their bairro, comuna or municipio or part of the municipal or comuna administrative staff.

DW has trained members of local organizations in collecting and analyzing poverty indicators from their communities so that they can testify on the findings to the MA, media and service providers. See annex Standard DW training guide on Advocacy to CSO.

The CSOs then use their (new) network and knowledge to engage in the meetings of Municipal Forums and Councils, CACS and other meetings. We work with many CSOs at all levels in Luanda. Some represent their bairro, comuna or municipality, some represent a certain cause or concern such as HIV, youth or gender issues, some residents’ commissions or water committees, etc. See annex VCUC Partner Organization details for the growing (we engage with more CSOs throughout the years and new CACS and ACAs are formed) list of partner organizations. In this contact information sheet we also assess the strength of the partner organization (PO). So we can follow up on capacity building with the weaker Partner Organizations. We have indicated where available the disaggregated numbers of males and females in the POs, and the same for the management level of the organizations. The list is not complete in this sense yet, but we see already a rather evenly representation of men and women (887 men and 788 women members; 78 men and 54 women in management structures). Considering the Angolan context that is a very high score on female participation. 

Activity/Milestone 3. Training conducted for municipal administrations in using MDG indicators & mapping.
Target months: 11, 23, 35

See our answer in Milestone 2. We have combined the trainees to come from both the CSOs and the MA. We do this for a reason: networking is a very important part of influencing the MA and their work. So if we can bring the groups together in trainings and workshops, it brings down the barriers already. There is a curriculum for training for municipal administrators under development, we had already several meetings with IFAL training institution held and proposed training modules have been submitted.

In preparations for the updating of the Municipal Profiles, we had meetings with Municipal Administrations. Not really training, but more workshop-like. The planning dept of each MA should coordinate data collection for the Municipal Profiles. But only in Kilamba Kiaxi and Cazenga this is partially happening now. DW together with the Poverty network takes care of the rest with the focus groups collecting the needed information via the database questionnaire. Part of the reason why DW has to provide extra support on the data gathering is the low staff availability at the Municipal Administrations. The MA should have 716 staff members each, but are seriously understaffed (only about 150 staff members in average) hence they experience difficulties to allocate time for trainings. Interest is great, but actual time is limited.

Activity/Milestone 4. Results of MDG mapping presented at annual Municipal Forums.
Target months: 14, 26, 38, 50

This milestone was to be reached in month 14 only, but we have achieved early success and have been using the Municipal Profiles already, and at all levels, not only at the Municipal Forums. Meetings take place at every level, bairro, comuna, municipality, province and national. Some meetings are with and by CSO only, some with CSO and MA or other government representatives. All of them lead up to and influence the agenda at the Municipal Forums. The pre-MF meetings lead to a more focused agenda, and strategy on how to present the struggles in the bairros and comunas. The CSO groups meet each other on a regular basis to talk about the issues they want to address at the Municipal Councils, CACS, MF and other meetings. The media is also targeted to write and broadcast about the issues of the community concern.

An example of this: The 4th Civil Society Conference in Huambo in November 2010. At this annual conference CSOs from the whole country come together to share information and find their shared focus. Before the national conference there were local and provincial conferences where the agenda for the national conference was decided on. The annual conference is organized by a different Angolan NGO every year. Development Workshop was elected by the national CSOs to organize the 4th CS conference. An example from one of the provincial meetings before the national conference:
See annex 2010/10/28-29 Program IVth Provincial CSO Conference Luanda
See annex 2010/11/08-09 PP used at IV CS Conference Province of Luanda
See annex 2010/11/08-09 Final Report CS Provincial Conference Luanda
See annex 2010/11/08-09 IV CS Conference Province of Luanda Conclusoes e Recomendaçoes Final
All those separate meetings resulted in the National Civil Society Conference on 19 and 20 November 2010 in Huambo.
See annex 2010/11/20 PP IV CS Conference WP Rede Contra Pobreza Urbana Contexto das SADC
See annex 2010/11/18 IV CS Monitoria Participativa da Pobreza Urbana MDGs
See annex Final Report CS National Conference 2010 Huambo

The DW staff gives presentations to different stakeholders at different levels. With these presentations they spread knowledge about the current situation in the municipalities and strengthen the name of Development Workshop as a leader and a serious and supporting partner in the fight against urban poverty.

See annex 2011/01/15 PP by WP explanation cooperation Muni Admin and CSO
See annex 2010/09/13 AC presentation to Ministry Urbanism & construction on work DW
See annex 2010/08/27 AC presentation on DW method of Participative Monitoring of Urban Poverty
See annex 2010/11/10 AC Seminar on Kilamba Kiaxi Master Plan with analysis of problems and solutions
See annex 2010/10/22 DW Advocacy team Presentation in Pretoria
And we receive international acknowledgement for our work, such as the UNDP Habitat price. See annex UNDP on LUPP price UN HABITAT.

Our trainings focus on action oriented problem assessment. We encourage CSO’s and CBOs to engage Government on key issues of better service provision. We see a lot of youth turning to crime, so there is need for better schools and more possibilities to find employment and improved livelihoods opportunities. When existing water stand posts are not functional anymore, CSOs, representing the interests of consumers ask for repairs and maintenance. An example of a CSO meeting last April, with media present, on social housing and the influence on poverty. See annex 2011/04/09 Minutes plenary discussion CSO Kilamba Kiaxi.

CACS are organized by the government. They invite CSOs to meet the Municipal Administrative staff to talk about the problems and plans for the area. The CACS are a platform for citizens’ engagement in municipal upgrading, participatory planning and budgeting. They meet with the MA staff and talk about the problems and the possible solutions for their bairro, comuna and municipio.

The main issues discussed at CACS meetings include: 
I) to discuss all social, infrastructural and economic issues neighborhoods face; 
II) identify possibilities for local solutions to problems in the neighborhood or municipality and identify issues that require additional resources and need to be taken to the next level; 
III) receive information about decisions and activities carried out at higher levels;
 IV) make decisions on issues and resolve conflicts that can’t be resolved at lower levels;
 V) cooperate in the development of and approval of the annual plan of the municipality and ideally, give feedback to their implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

See one example: annex 2011/05/14 Report CACS - SAMBIZANGA

On the Municipal Forums (MF) there is more space for citizens gathering. The CSOs organize the MF.

The MDG mapping information and the Municipal Profile information are used at all levels by all stakeholders.

The CSOs that were trained use their network and knowledge to engage in the CACS and other meetings. An example from Kilamba Kiaxi: To improve the cooperation between CSO and the Municipal Development Forum of Kilamba Kiaxi the focus was on influencing the establishment of municipal Consultative Councils (CACS). The first session was attended by the provincial Governor of Luanda. The CACS was made possible by various consultation meetings held between members of CSOs, with support of our advocacy team, which culminated in the drafting of a proposal that was submitted to the city manager on municipal improvements. The same letter and the proposed operation of CACS were sent to the provincial governor of Luanda, as the city manager was late in responding to the request of the network. At the meeting the network members expressed their concerns about the quality of social infrastructure works in progress in the city, particularly in relation to roads. Network members complained about the lack of systematic process of consultation and dialogue to find solutions to the problems facing communities. The provincial governor appreciated the contributions of network members and urged the city manager to take greater advantage of the availability of civil society in the city to find solutions to problems.

Municipal Councils (CACS) are convened on the initiative and creativity of each municipal administrator. The Ministry of Territorial Administration, responsible for monitoring and ensuring that each MA works in compliance with the law, does not have the capacity to oversee the work of the MA. As a result some MAs have Municipal Councils 4 times per year, others 2 times, and some only one meeting per year. The law foresees two meetings a year. Part of the work of DW is to influence citizens, CSOs and the MAs to see the advantage of having the meetings in acordance with the law.

DW has trained members of local CSOs in collecting and analyzing poverty indicators from their communities so that they can testify and speak with authority on the findings to the MA, media and service providers.
DW also provides CSOs and other stakeholders with the monthly CEDOC Media Scan. See Milestone 9 on the CEDOC media scan. The local organizations use the information to support and if necessary challenge their local governments during CACS meetings, forums and through the media. The issues that are mostly featured include water and electricity accessibility, basic sanitation, lack of or substandard sewage systems, garbage collection, flooding during the rainy season, birth certificate registration and crime.

See annex 2011/03/09 water access and plan for improvement Cazenga & Kilamba Kiaxi
See annex 2011/05/12 Launching of CACS Kilamba Kiaxi
See annex 2011/05/12 Provincial Governor & staff during the inception of CACS in Kilamba Kiaxi picture
See annex 2011/05/12 Audience in CACS Kilamba Kiaxi picture
They use, amongst other information, the Municipal Profiles (MP) based on the MDG urban poverty socio-economic and institutional indicators maps. We have 4 MPs: Sambizanga, Cacuaco, Cazenga, and Kilamba Kiaxi. MPs are always living documents, which get updated on a regular basis, as soon as information becomes available. The other two MPs, for Rangel and Viana, are being developed. The DW research unit has the lead on the continuation of the Municipal Profiles (MP). They coordinate the updates, and ask for new input. Some information needs to come from the MA. If they don’t give, or give too slow or substandard information, we have to add that to the risk assessment.

Municipal Forums:

During the reporting period municipal forums were held in the municipalities of Cazenga, Cacuaco, Sambizanga and Kilamba Kiaxi while initial work was started in the municipalities of Rangel and Viana. The four municipalities where the forums were held, community groups and associations engaged amongst themselves to discuss ways of building synergies and agree on best strategies to engage with service providers and the various provincial and central government working commissions that have been working in the respective municipalities. The forums were also used to strategize on ways each municipal CSOs can have a very invigorating poverty network that engage with the MAs and service providers on how joint cooperation between the various stakeholders can make poverty alleviation strategy more effective.

The municipal poverty networks also discussed ways of influencing local pro-poor policies at the communal and municipal levels. The LUPN promoted the organization of the municipal and provincial civil society conferences and was also presented in two other meetings other than the National Urban Forum organized by the Ministry of Urbanism and the Office of President dealing with Municipal Development and Poverty Eradication.

The last Municipal Forum held in the month of June in Cazenga. Invitations were sent to different stakeholders including the municipal administration, the representative of the electricity company, the police, etc. See annex Invitations to MA et al to Urban Forum Cazenga. The Municipal Forum was broadcasted by the municipal public radio (a branch of national radio) and the main issues discussed where the burdens for women. Proposals were presented that did not only reach the MA but the Minister of Justice herself who proposed to sit-down with the local CSOs to find solutions.  

Another example: The water association in Ngola Kiluange (Sambizanga Municipality) presented a proposal to their local administration on the potential risk of an informal dumb near a school and the local administration send a team to remove the dumb two days later.

There are municipal and community forums where the presence of a government representative is a must but the local CSOs do no always want them (the government) to be in their meetings when they discuss strategy issues or elect their leadership. Meetings aimed at building joint advocacy or policy influencing strategies do not have the presence of any government representative. The municipal forum in Cacuaco held in October 2010 discussed the municipal urbanization plan and the topic was presented by the vice-administrator. The municipal civil society conference in Cazenga, Kilamba Kiaxi and Cacuaco were attended either by the vice-administrator or by another representative of the administrator. 

In the Municipal Forum, meetings, and special meetings in Cacuaco and Cazenga we used the MP. Cacuaco used our MP for their MA Plan and Budget. Unfortunately we have not received the Plan and Budget from Cacuaco yet.

The combination of all these meetings, workshops and trainings gives a constant sharing of information and raising of expectations between stakeholders, and keeps the pressure on all of them to perform their duties.
An example of the meeting matrix of some of the project officers at DW Advocacy team:
See annex Project officer LG matrix for meetings & trainings
See annex Project officer TN matrix for meetings & trainings
See annex Advocacy team coordinator WP Advocacy at meetings matrix

We are in negotiation with IFAL, the Training Institute for Local Administrations, to develop several training modules on:
I)  Municipal Planning and Budgeting,
II) Community Water Management.
III) Land Management and Cadastre.
See annex 2011/04/00 cooperation with IFAL Área Temáticas de apoio ao IFAL

Objective 2 – To build an Urban Poverty Network to advocate for improved and equitable access to basic services.

Activity/Milestone 5: Organize Municipal Forums on 6 monthly basis

Target months: 7,14,19, 26, 31, 38, 43, 50, 55

During the reporting period municipal forums were held in the municipalities of Cazenga, Cacuaco, Sambizanga and Kilamba Kiaxi while initial work was started in the municipalities of Rangel and Viana. These Forums discussed the provision of basic services, road infrastructures, sanitation and housing. The conclusions and recommendations of the meetings were discussed taken to the CACS meetings which are led by the municipal administrators. The aim is for the municipal LUPN to meet on a monthly basis. But since there have been discussions on municipal and provincial civil society conferences, which are being promoted by LUPN, the meetings have been taking place more regularly. Some municipalities hold meetings every other week, while others almost every week. It is not our decision now to determine how often the LUPN will meet in the second year of the program. The LUPN leadership group decides what they think to be convenient for them. We provide technical assistance in terms of methodology but we try not to make any decision on their behalf. The city-wide LUPN continue meeting regularly on a monthly basis.

The four municipalities where the Forums were held, community groups and associations engaged amongst themselves to discuss ways of building synergies and agree on best strategies to engage with service providers and the various provincial and central government working commissions that have been engaged in the respective municipalities. The MF were also used to strategize on ways each municipal CSO can have a very active poverty network that engage with the MAs and service providers on how joint cooperation between the various stakeholders to make poverty alleviation strategy more effective. The municipal poverty networks also discussed ways of influencing local pro-poor policies at the communal and municipal levels.

The LUPN promoted the organization of the municipal and provincial civil society conferences and was also presented in two other meetings other than the National Urban Forum organized by the Ministry of Urbanism and the Office of President dealing with Municipal Development and Poverty Eradication. An example of such a meeting was held in May 2011 in the Commune of Camama, Kilamba Kiaxi. Participants included the provincial governor, the municipal administrator, all the six communal administrators, head of departments, traditional and community leaders and representatives of the municipal poverty network. See annex 2011/05/12 17 CSOs from 6 Municipalities information meeting.

Socio economic data captured through the baseline study is disseminated to MA through meetings such as forums and CACS. The provincial governor called for an emergence meeting in Kilamba Kiaxi to discuss some of the issues raised during the forum meetings. In Cazenga, special CACS meeting was called by the municipal administrator to discuss with the members the reliability of the data and the use thereof for the municipal development planning.

A DW field officer has continuously being working with the planning department in Cazenga to assist them making the most of the municipal profile. In Cacuaco, the planning department is continuously using the municipal profile to both furnish information to provincial government and to discuss priority projects with public and private service providers. Dissemination of municipal profiles were also carried out in a CACS meeting and in a special meeting organized by APRODEC last year. The meeting was held in December 12th 2010 in the main meeting room of Municipal Administration. Participants included the municipal administrator, CS representatives, head of departments and traditional leaders.
Examples from the 2nd Municipal Forum in Viana:
See annex 2011/07/29 PP used 2nd Muni Conference CSO Viana
See annex 2011/07/29 2nd Muni Forum CSO Viana report

Activity/Milestone 6. Community media articles or broadcasts covering the Municipal Forum debates.
Target months: At least 10 x

DW has trained members of local organizations in collecting and analyzing poverty related indicators from their communities so that they can testify on the findings to the MAs, media and service providers. In addition to the indicators collected in the communities DW also provides community organizations with media scan produced on a monthly basis by the DW/CEDOC. See also milestone #9. The local organizations use the information to challenge their local governments during CACS meetings, forums and through the media. The issues that are mostly featured include water and electricity accessibility, basic sanitation, birth certificate registration and crime.

Three articles related to the municipal forums were published in Vozes of Cacuaco, InforSambila and Vida Kilamba municipal newspapers.
See annex AngolaPress Muni Managers on Budget Rules Seminar
See annex A Capital press clip - Sambizanga Forum da Pobreza
See annex A Voz de Cacuaco, Maio 2011
See annex
A Voz de Cacuaco editorial (No. 6 2010), DW at conference
See annex A Voz de Cacuaco, Novembro 2010

Extract from a group interview conducted by a British journalist to assess the impact of the work carried out by DW with the Kilamba Kiaxi water committee in January 2011: See annex press statement WP ACA report training . Municipal Forums of Sambizanga and Kilamba Kiaxi were broadcast live in Radio Ecclesia. The Kilamba Kiaxi Municipal Forum was on the 9th of April 2011. The issues and the quality of discussion were much appraised by the large population who were tuned to the radio station. Cazenga MF meetings were broadcast on Radio Cazenga and Radio Ecclesia in July and in August 2011. Kilamba Kiaxi MF were broadcast in March and August 2010.

Other radio broadcasts and TV networks and internet pages covering our work:

Activity/Mileston 7. Launch Luanda Urban Poverty Network (LUPN).
Target month: 6

The Luanda Urban Poverty Network (LUPN) is officially active and its members approved the terms of reference that will govern the network. Each municipal network is currently electing its coordination body so as to make sure that the issues that are discussed at the provincial level are based on the reality at the grassroots.
See annex LUPN Terms of Reference
See annex What is LUPN?
See annex Periodic Report of the LUPN

LUPN is leading in the organization of the 5th municipal and provincial CS Conference in the last months of 2011. The National 5th CS conference will be held later in 2011, but local meetings have already been held.

Activity/Milestone 8. Meetings of the LUPN held four times per year.
Target months: quarterly

The LUPN is currently meeting on monthly basis in order to follow the pace of the political and social changing context in which Luanda is going through. Main points of discussion has been on how to hold the government accountable to fulfill the 2008 election promises as we are entering in the final phase before the next elections.

The last National Urban Forum was held in August 2010 in Sumbe, Kwanza Sul. The forum tried to collect proposals on land delimitation and alternative construction techniques to be used for the government One Million Houses project. The Urban Poverty Network was represented by three members who presented proposals on how the government could involve the beneficiaries so as to have stronger and sustained community projects. They raised concerns on what they view to be an “infrastructure construction” kind of development model which does not seem to be worried about building social capital. Green spaces and playing grounds mainly for children and youth were advocated as necessary for the new urbanized areas in Luanda and across the country. The government representatives and the other participants took very good notes of the proposal presented by the LUPN.

The next National Urban Forum is scheduled for the first week of October in Cunene province. DW has been invited to do a presentation on Urban Mapping. Other members of the Luanda poverty network will be there also.

Activity/Milestone 9. Monthly and annual media scan monitoring review published.
Target months: 14, 26, 38, 50

The CEDOC research department of DW scans all the Angolan media for articles that connect to the work of DW or are about the work of DW. It covers all national, regional, local printed and most online media. It covers state owned, private and community based media. This milestone is to be reached only in year 2, but has been reached early in the program. Every month the newest CEDOC Media scan is sent to many stakeholders. A printed version is always available at the project office in Luanda. As the document averages 87 to 165 pages, we do not print versions unless requested. Every month the CEDOC team makes a PDF file that is sent to all the stakeholders and other interested parties. This monthly media scan is send to 588 people.

The links to the monthly media scan done during the runtime of the Gates program is from 2010/09 to 2011/06. Click here to see all CEDOC Media Scans. We are in the final stages of updating the DW website. All the media scans will be available via the website of DW also.

Objective 3 – To increase sustainable access to potable water through the promotion of community management models to ensure consumer voices are heard

Activity/Milestone 10. Base-line mapping of water services in the project municipalities.
Target months: 8, 18, 30, 55

We have the baseline questionnaires information in the DW Database as described in milestone 1. The questionnaire covers all MDG poverty indicators and collects answers on 11 questions regarding the access to, quality and price of water. This information is used for the updating of the MP and in the field by the WATSAN officers.

We carried out and completed a diagnostics on the Water and Sanitation situation in the municipality of Cacuaco and Viana. This produced thematic maps of municipalities, communities and neighborhoods; location of water tanks, location of pumps and fountains, the demarcation and mapping of sectors from each of the districts using GIS technology, have identified the key players involved in the marketing and distribution of water. An introduction and presentation in GIS technology is used to explain our way of working and collecting the data on which we base our knowledge and reports.
See annex PP introduction GIS technology
See annex PP Presentation of GIS technology

Initiated and ongoing update registration and mapping of existing stand posts in three municipalities (Cacuaco, Viana and Cazenga), especially their location, technical state, period of construction and environmental management. Detailed mapping of water services are being done in conjunction with the baseline for the other services. Mapping has been concluded for the municipalities of Sambizanga, Cazenga, Cacuaco and Kilamba Kiaxi. See annex Water pumps assessment 168 stand posts. This list is being geo-referenced and put into maps by our GIS assistant.
 A study was done on the level of participation of women in community management of water and sanitation in zones of the project. See annex 2011 WATSAN Women Research, done in Viana and Cacuaco.

Activity/Milestone 11. Training of stand post committee staff in maintenance and financial management.
Target months: 11,23,35

In the program we give several trainings and held several meetings. At the meetings we disseminate knowledge also, so a meeting is sometimes also to be considered as training or capacity building. We developed four training modules and community capacity building (management techniques and basic accounting, human relations and interpersonal and basic records, maintenance and minor repairs on the fountain, and cross-cutting themes on HIV-AIDS, Gender, Legislation, water, etc.).
See annex WATSAN training the ACAs pictures
See annex WATSAN functional water points and committees pictures

The WATSAN team works with 6 active MA and 6 ACAs already established, and 3 ACAs that are in the process of (re)starting, and approximately 10 neighborhood committees (ACOs). The WATSAN team conducted 12 seminars on various topics (Hygiene and Health, Associations and Leadership, Community Management of Fountains, Conflict Resolution, HIV/AIDS). The WATSAN team made 20 presentations (Hygiene and Health, Water Treatment and Maintenance and cleaning of fountains). We facilitate debates, and use leaflets we still have from our cooperation with UNICEF. We organized 15 community theater sessions: The actors show Good Customer Service, organization and management of fountains, water treatment and cleaning and maintenance of fountains. See annex WATSAN theater in the barrios pictures. We gave institutional support to 3 ACAs to develop themselves and three residents with offices and material improvement in physical facilities of two clubs. Training was given on a "computer user level" to 9 project beneficiaries (members of Associations). 


Training was given on "social mobilization techniques for the construction of improved household latrines". The training was directed to members of associations of community management of water and sanitation in the neighborhood that will ensure the process of social mobilization in support of construction of latrines in one neighborhood (22 members). 
Training on "Mapping of Water Supply and Sanitation" (use of GPS, recording and analyzing data, preparing and sharing of the report). The training was attended by eight people, was aimed at sharing technical and location management for municipal water. It lasted 1 day (5 hours).
See annex 2011/05/20 Hygiene and sanitation seminar I
See annex 2011/05/20 Hygiene and sanitation seminar II

Organization of 3 workshops (one on "Gender and HIV / AIDS" and two on Community Development) - Each workshop lasted for two (6 hours / day) days, with target group members of associations, water committees and community in general. The average was 25 people per seminar.
See annex 2011/05/28 seminar on water management
See annex 2011/05/28 seminar on water management groups present
Realization of 14 lectures on hygiene and sanitation. The lectures were held just around the stand posts with concerns regarding the organization of users in search of water, and lasted up to 45 minutes. The goal of these lectures is to get to know possible members for new water management committees. 
An example:
See annex 2011/05/25 GPS training I
See annex 2011/05/25 GPS training II
See annex 2011/05/25 GPS training III

6 meetings held in the comunas on Water and Sanitation (Kicolo, Cacuaco Headquarters and Ngola Kiluanje) – These meetings are open to all citizens. So they can choose their representatives that will be working with the MA.
We created and launched three "Community Forum for Water and Sanitation in the municipalities of Cazenga (Ngola Kiluanje), Cacuaco (Kikolo) and Viana (Moxico) - as a community space for discussion and accountability of ACAs to consumers of water on a monthly basis. The meetings aim to provide accounting, joint planning and engagement of actors working in the water sector at the community level and participating ACAs, residents, church leaders, youth and the community at large. On average 35 participants. One example:
See annex WATSAN electing the water committee members pictures
See annex 2011/05/17 ACA preparation to election team
See annex 2011/05/17 ACA preparation to election team attendance list

Realization of 2 MA meetings on municipal water and sanitation (participation of the major key players in the sector of water at the municipal level). These meetings are chaired by the local municipal administration of Cacuaco and seek to meet the concerns identified at the level of communal gatherings. Members participating in meetings are the Municipal Administration, EPAL (public water company in Luanda), Representatives of Associations and representatives of residents' committees. On average 25 participants.  


Backed with 175 boxes of the product SURE (a purifier recommended by the authorities for water treatment at household level) the associations of community management of water and sanitation in the project area received a training on how to use and sell the product. Each box contains 48 vials of the product and the associations will sell them at an affordable price and use the funds to replenish stock and creating a petty cash fund for preventive maintenance of the fountains. This product is funded by PSI, but it is good for the visibility of DWs work together with the MA.
 We had the 1st Workshop on Models of Community Management and Exchange of experiences between the associations. New committees were set up for 17 water points: in Cacuaco 12 and in Viana 5.
 Six New Water Consumer Associations were established. We legalized and promoted 4 Water Associations at the Municipal Administration of Cacuaco and the Provincial Government of Luanda (GPL). 


Table showing the direct and indirect beneficiaries of the work done by the WATSAN team and their Partner Organizations:

 

Directos

 

786

Homem

185

23,5%

Mulher

513

65%

Criança

90

11,5%

 

Indirectos

 

4716

Homem

540

11,5%

Mulher

3078

65%

Crianças

1110

23,5%

Activity/Milestone 12. Best Practice model tested and validated.

Not connected to the Gates Milestones, but a strong indicator of our impact: In the province of Cabinda the DW management model was used by the National Directorate for Water. The DW management model is based on participatory planning, as non-political and neutral as possible. See annex 2010 MoGeCA DW National Water Policy document.   

Several MA in Luanda (other than our target MAs) have asked for and received this model to use for their planning cycle. A monitoring system was set up and records the flow of water in stand posts. DW gave a public presentation of the Model of Community Management of Water, respectively, at the Workshop Ministry of Energy and Water in allusion to the World Water day, and Civil Society Workshop organized by the Angolan National Commission to Fight Poverty of the Government of Angola. See annex Cupi Baptista at Ministry of Water picture.

DW did a multi-stakeholder study on Luanda under the State of the World Cities to be published by UN Habitat, providing an opportunity for diagnostic of perceptions of Government, Private Sector & Civil Society. DW has been working closely with the Water National Directorate from the Ministry of Energy and Water in order to replicate the community management model to other communities across the country. There have already been some significant successes in Cunene, Huambo and Bie, but there is still a lot to do. One of the biggest difficulties faced here is not directly related to the government’s acceptance of adopting the model but the capacity of providing timely assistance in those communities where water services are being implemented.

The government led “Water for all Project”, for example, is trying to provide for water for nearly 75% of the population by the end of 2012 and most of services will be community related ones, that would require community management model. An attempt here is being made so as to enable Local Administration Training Institute (IFAL) to start delivering courses on water management models. The WATSAN team has done special meetings a.o. in Cacuaco. They created a space to talk about water with all the top people from EPAL (National Water Company), the Municipal Administrations, and all the OCAs. The MA recognized the good work that DW is doing in this field and will support the dissemination of the model to other areas and new water points, and DW’s involvement in that.

PROGRESS

  • General Progress:

We believe that the project has already achieved some significant successes and is generally on schedule, and on some milestones ahead of schedule. We have a very active Partner Onganization  base that meets on a very regular basis, to address the issues faces by the urban poor in Luanda. The constraints we face were already anticipated at the beginning of the program. The cooperation with the local and national government bodies has been positive but dealing with Angolan bureaucracy which is often slow to respond has obliged us to adjust  timeliness on some outputs. An unanticipated factor has been the Government’s plan to change the borders of Luanda’s municipalities and several senior staff changes in Municipal Administrations’ and maybe more significantly two changes of Luanda’s Governor and several of the cities top officials. The rotation of senior Government officers has meant that we will plan to give even more attention to training and supporting the newly appointed Municial Administration staff in the development and execution of the Municipal Plans and Budgets. However in general we will continue implementing the program as planned. 

  • Key Milestone Deviation:

We are meeting all milestones.

  • Course Correction: 

At this moment we are not planning any course corrections.

  • Plans for Next Reporting Period:

Not applicable. We will continue as planned.

RISK

Most if not all risk were already identified before. Below you find an update on our risk assessment and strategies:

Risk 1: Lack of a serious commitment by the Government and/or abandonment of the promises made in relation to poverty reduction may affect the results of this project.

Situation at moment of reporting:
 During 2010 and the first half of 2011, the Angolan Government has made a renewed effort,  to deliver on its ambitious agenda promised during the election campaign of 2008. This includes the construction of:


• One million houses: In the first phase of this project 710 buildings and 3000 houses (apartments) were built. The forecast through 2012 is to build another 82,000 apartments. The government already acknowledged they will not reach the total of houses promised before the next elections. The costs for one of these houses (between US$126.000 to US$200.000) is out of the reach of most Angolans, and especially the most needy. This has created widespread discontent contrary to the expectations created. The clearing of land for housing and the demarkation of housing land reserves has also involved the forced removal and in some cases demolitions of existing ‘informal’ housing, whose owners often are not properly compensated (in terms of resettlement and availability of social services). The division of land reserves for residential purposes is is rarely done with prior consultation with local residents. The current program Voices of Citizens for Urban Change aims to influence municipal administrations involved in the housing program to employ participatory planning methods of negotiation with the communities.


• Water for All: This program it is also very ambitious, aiming to reach 80% water coverage by 2012. See annex Program Agua Para Todos. Despite having reached improvements in the  richer commercial housing areas in the south of the city, in old informal settlement areas and the peri-urban peripheries, where the lack of water is higher, this program has not (yet) met its objectives. 


The Municipal Integrated Program to Combat Poverty and Rural Development for the entire country was launched in January 2011, with a clear aim of delivering results before the 2012 elections. Interestingly, this major Government “integrated” program organized under the auspices of the State President’s own Civic Office, has appropriated much of the language and (to some extent) policy mission statement of DW and civil society’s pro-poor advocacy platform. This “poverty eradication” public policy vision must be recognized as a shift away from the official “trickle-down” approach that has been predominant for most of the last post-war decade. DW and its local community partners have been welcome participants in several of the Government public forums. DW sees the Integrated Program as being a strategic opportunity to not only influence Government’s jargon but also planning policies and introduce good practice on delivering services on the ground.

Challenges that need to be addressed in the new Integrated Program include:
I) Adapting municipal budgets to local priorities;
II) Introducing a balance approach to investments in both infrastructure and the promotion of local economic development;
III) Increase the autonomy of municipal administration to run the programs locally; (Presently there is incoherence between the central government discourse and practice, in terms of decentralizing the power from the centre to the municipal administrations on one hand and centralizing control of finances by central government)

• There is a need for updated survey data on how many Angolans live in which areas, and on the real levels of poverty. The survey of population welfare (IBEP) carried out by the Angolan Government in 2009, claim that poverty reached a reduction to 36.6%. See annex 2010 IBEP versão resumida, page 14.

The baseline poverty data using UNHabitat recognized indicators collected by the program Voices of Citizens for Urban Change demonstrates a different pattern of high levels of local poverty in the musseque areas where the program is working. The official Government data is also being questioned by academics and other independent centers for studies and scientific researches, like CEIC from Catholic Church, and some international insitutions.

The Parliament is responsible for overseeing the implementation of the actions of the Angolan Government, has difficulties and limitations to perform this duty.
• The programs get mentioned in many speeches and media outlets. However progress against targets set by the Government rarely gets tracked. We have the plans, but the detailed budgets and the results on these plans are rarely published. This provides an opportunity for our project in getting the local communities and the designated consumers of the planned basic services to monitor the delivery and eventually also influence the budgeting process.
• And this leads to one of the greater risks. The Government treats municipal budgets as restricted internal documents and rarely produces the level of detail that Municipal administrations need. An example from Cacuaco: We needed to have access to the planned 2011 budget for the MA annual plan. A training/workshop was planned by DW to assist the Municipal Administration in developing their planning and budgeting capacity. We were able by creating this training opportunity to get access to the Municipal Plan but were disappointed to see that it was little more than a sort of shopping list. The information is very outdated or even obsolete. Municipal Administration staff demonstrated their willingness to upgrading their levels of skills in budgeting and planning.

Mitigation Strategies: The Voices of Citizens for Urban Change Project will continue to carry out studies and monitoring of progress or lack of policies and programs around the Angolan Government. The results of these studies of monitoring will be shared through the media and CSOs. That will lead to pressure on the government to improve the implementation of the policies. The Project will be part of the initiative to create the National Observatory for monitoring the progress of implementation of national strategies to combat poverty in light of the ratification of the Government of Angola to the Declaration of the MDGs. The project team will continue to train MA staff and CSO organizations to improve their capacities.

Risk 2 A: The Government does not provide sufficient funding to local authorities.

Situation at the moment of reporting:
 Although the Angolan Government has provided its policy agenda in the administrative and fiscal decentralization to the level of Municipal Administration (MA), the allocation of roles/ functions has not been accompanied by an adequate allocation of financial resources and capable human resources. See annex 2010/06/22 AngolaPress on Reduction Municipal Budget. 
MAs have the status of autonomous units in the state budget, but they still have not assumed  the full autonomy to control their own resources permitted by law. MAs are in practice still dependent organs of the Provincial Government. The MAs have to send their plans and budgets to request for funds. They do not have access to a sufficient funding every year to fully implement their plans. The Provincial Governador determines the monthly amount of funds available to each municipality.

Based on the Decree 17/10 on the organization and operation of the MA, the MAs and communities come together in Consultative Municipal Councils (CACS). There are important Councils that the residents  can use for discussion and resolution of local problems. The project gives great importance to the CACS and promotes public education about its potential through the dissemination of information. Some CSOs still see the CACS as just a place of "approval" of what has been decided, suggesting another role of public communication of a consultative forum for citizen participation. See as back ground document annex 2009 World Bank report on Angola Municipal Accountability.

Risk 2 B: Successive changes of directors and governors of Luanda.

This leads to MAs that are busy with the consequences of the change in leadership. As people are not elected but appointed a new leader could lead to shifts in staff positions. The focus will not be on building capacities of staff of MA. The Watsan team raised the concern about the high staff turnover in the management positions in the various MA's that they work with.

Example: In the last 2 years in Cacuaco, the Municipal Administrator was replaced 3 times. The last time was 3 months ago. That leads to extra time needed to develop new working relations with the new administrator. In Cacuaco we are involved in the management of 60 water points so we can’t afford to loose too much time. In Luanda a Provincial Management Committee is busy to install the new Governador. Will that again lead to a change in Municipal Administrators? In Angola having personal relations with the stakeholders in any situation is very important.

Mitigation Strategies: The Voices of Citizens for Urban Change Project continues to provide training and capacity building in the field of municipal participatory planning, to enable the creation of an environment of mutual trust and relationship within the CACS. DW invests a lot of time in getting to know all the ‘movers and shakers’ in the Angolan Administrative structures, at all levels.



Risk 3: The government sometimes accuses  civil society organizations to be spokesmen of political opposition and introduce restrictions on their activities.

Situation at the moment of reporting:
 This risk remained and increased somewhat for some CSOs, especially those who advocate aggressively on human rights, land tenure and asymmetries in the distribution of income in the country and corruption.
 Some NGOs and CSO have criticized individual government leaders personally expounding political party positions. Public space tends to close for these organizations. The CSOs in the CACS are not fully able to expose their views freely. It is supposed to be a very democratic space, but there is room for improvement. 

Mitigation Strategies: The Voices of Citizens for Urban Change Project will continue to work with the Institute for Local Administration Training (IFAL) to train the government and CSOs on how to best use the CACS as spaces to promote a constructive dialogue between governments and CSOs.



Risk 4: Leadership challenges within civil society.
I) Reduced space for CSOs in the public sector, due to stricter legal control by the government of CSOs.
II) Drastic reduction of donor funds to Angola.
III) Strong staff members of NGOs move to the public or private sector, as NGOs are struggling to compete with salaries offered. 

IV) The State sometimes fails to recognize the role of some CSOs, especially those who criticize government programs.

Example: The independent Radio Ecclesia still being stopped from broadcasting nationally, being a very critical station.

Mitigation Strategies: The Voices of Citizens for Urban Change Project will invest in the promotion of relevant training workshops for CSOs, forums and CACS to promote participatory and democratic elections of representatives to public spaces, inclusive and participatory municipal planning and leadership activities in CSOs and MAs.


Risk 5: Changes in the borders of MA lead to delays and unclear structures.

Luanda is in a process of changing some of the borders of the MA. Plans will be submitted later, and plans in process will cover old boundaries. As consequence of the expansion of the city to new areas that were very recently used as agricultural and grazing land, the government claimed that they were no longer able to make a proper planning for the city. Luanda has been extended in the northern east part. The parliament has approved the annexation of one municipality of Bengo to Luanda and the restructuring of the province of Luanda. Thus, Luanda will have seven municipalities instead of the current nine. Six municipalities (Samba, Ingombotas, Maianga, Sambizanga, Rangel and part of Kilamba Kiaxi) will be merged to become one (the municipality of Luanda). Four new municipalities have been created: Belas, Icole e Bengo, Quissama and Luanda. These four municipalities will be added to Cazenga, Cacuaco and Viana. There is a possibility that some of the former municipalities will become communes.

Mitigation Strategy: Our principal institutional counterparts in the MA and Central Government appear to still be in place at the time of reporting. Our CSO focus strategically focuses on working with bairro level community based organizations who will still be active and vital even if municipal boundaries are re-configured. We will therefore keep our ongoing work focused on the  bairros, irrespective of which municipality they belonged to or are becoming a part of at a future point.

Risk 6: Municipal Elections were expected in late 2012.

No date has been set, but we expect them only in 2013. This could influence the speed of the MA development of Plans and Budget. And this could lead to the rapid building of water points without proper management and maintenance structures developed. Water points are a very visible and important improvement in most areas. But without proper management of the water points, that will lead to water points that will function only for a short time, if at all. The DW management model is based on participation of all stakeholders. In a highly politicized society, under the pressure of upcoming elections we have to be aware of and vigilant of the neutrality of DW.

Mitigation Strategy: Make sure DW keeps her independent image, and promotes civic education and the importance of proper water management systems. While there are some expected challenges requiring re-adapting the approach to engage with the new governance structures at the municipal and provincial levels, the project does not foresee any major changes in its operation.

SUSTAINABILITY

The Voices of Citizens for Urban Change (VCUC) Program is part of and scaling up of a long-term cooperation between DW, many Angolan and international CSOs and NGOs, and the Angolan Government at all levels, national, provincial, municipal and comunal. DW is able to execute the Voices of Citzens for Urban Change program, because of the long standing cooperation between DW and all the other stakeholders. We have supported the development of ACAs we in the past that have been operational for many years without further operational of financial support from DW. We have long term cooperation with EPAL, IFAL, several ministries and other government bodies. And of course with our CSO and NGO partners in Angola. One of the aims of the program is to facilitate and support the growing cooperation between all stakeholders in the improvement of the living conditions in Angola, and in the case of this program, in Luanda. But we disseminate our knowledge and information throughout the country and share information with, and learn from (inter)national partners as often as we can. This is one of the main tasks of Allan Cain, supported by Belisario dos Santos, Cupi Baptista and Willy Piassa. They often join (inter)national conferences and workshops to strengthen the cooperation with other organizations.
See annex 2010/08/27 AC presentation on DW method of Monitoria Participativa da Pobreza Urbana
see annex 2010/09/13 AC presentation to Ministry Urbanism & construction on work DW
see annex 2010/10/22 DW Advocacy Team Presentation in Pretoria
see annex 2010/11/08-09 IV Civil Society Conference Province of Luanda
see annex 2010/11/10 AC Seminar on Kilamba Kiaxi Master Plan with analysis of problems and solutions
see annex 2011/01/28 AC presentation to World Bank on Urban Land markets
see annex 2011/05/26 Situational Report of World Cities by AC on Luanda
see annex 2011/06/00 AC PP Urban Environment & Research informal markets assessment Luanda (given in Nairobi)

As the Angolan government is keen on continuing the cooperation with the CSOs and NGOs (including DW) we expect the continuous development of this cooperation to continue after the grant period has ended.

SCALABILITY

We aim to increase the influence of the citizens on the development of their bairros, comunas and municipalities. And that work is not restricted to the 6 municipalities of the Voices of Citizens for Urban Change program. Our work spreads throughout the whole city, and where possible also outside Luanda and through the National Urban Forum and the Annual Civil Society Conferences the lessons learned from the programme are shared and replicated at a national level. Due to the visibility of DW in Angola, we often get invited to share our work and our research in other parts of the country, and even abroad. During the current reporting period DW has had the opportunity of sharing the experience of the Voices of Citizens for Urban Change program in China, South Africa, Sweden, Kenya and Mozambique.

LESSONS LEARNED

We are very aware of the importance of working with and partnering with the key people in the strategic institutions. We continue to develop functional working relations with all stakeholders in this program. Especially the continuous changes in the Municipal Administration staff leads to some extend to extra work, but that has to be accepted. Training of all stakeholders at all levels remains vital to the program. The sharing of all available information in an action oriented format is crucial. Doing research and sharing the outcome leads to better knowledge and decisions. That helps the program to come to results that all will benefit from. The population because their needs are met, the municipal administrations because they improve their capacities and strength to influence the situation in their municipalities. It is not a lack of will to improve the lives of the poor, but sometimes the problems, needs and demands are so overwhelming and complex they lead to in-action or fear to take decisions. The Program supports all stakeholders to keep moving in the right direction.

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